What Are the Signs and Treatment of Meningitis?
Bacterial, viral, or fungal meningitis? Symptoms and treatment depend on the specific type of infection.
Bacterial meningitis is typically treated with antibiotics.
Different antibiotics are used for specific bacteria.
During the course of treatment, fluids are lost through vomiting and diarrhea.
Vaccines are also used to treat this ailment.
The mortality rate for bacterial meningitis increases with age.
A population-based surveillance study in the United States found that the mortality rate in adults was 16.4 percent;
the rate was lower in those aged 18-34 years but was higher among the 65+ age group.
However, in children, mortality rates were only eight percent and nine percent, respectively.
If you have an infection, consider receiving intravenous antibiotics.
There are different types of meningitis, each of which can have serious health consequences.
Bacterial meningitis, for example, requires the use of antibiotics.
The drugs prescribed may be different than those used for viral or fungal meningitis.
If you have this type of meningitis, you will probably require an intravenous (IV) antibiotic treatment, which may require hospitalization.
A lumbar puncture is a medical procedure that is performed to obtain a sample of the spinal fluid in order to diagnose meningitis and determine if it is bacterial.
Meningitis caused by bacteria can be fatal if left untreated.
During the procedure, a thin needle is inserted through the spinal membrane and the dura into the spinal canal.
A patient may experience back pressure during the procedure, so a numbing medication is usually prescribed.
Depending on the location of the puncture, this procedure may be performed as an outpatient procedure or as part of a hospital stay.
Some healthcare providers may perform lumbar punctures in patients who have experienced a stroke or use fluoroscopic guidance.
A lumbar puncture is a safe procedure. Afterward, patients should rest for an hour and avoid strenuous activity for at least 24 hours.
They should also drink plenty of fluids and report any bleeding or infection.
Although the procedure is generally safe, there is a risk of back or leg pain and an accidental puncture of the spinal cord.
Patients should stay hydrated and avoid heavy lifting for at least 24 hours.
The most effective way to prevent meningitis and protect the public is to get the vaccine.
Meningococcal disease is a serious bacterial infection that affects the membranes of the brain and spinal cord.
In up to 10% of cases, meningitis can be fatal.
However, if the disease is not treated early, it can cause severe complications, including loss of a finger,
deafness, seizures, and even death.
The vaccines for meningitis are designed to protect against the most common strains and serotypes.
There are two types of vaccines available to prevent meningitis: the conjugate MenACWY and MenB-4C vaccines.
These two types are highly effective from 6 weeks of age.
Both are recommended for children and adults up to 5 years of age, including people who belong to certain risk groups.
The conjugate vaccines protect against 10 serotypes and 13 serotypes, respectively.
New vaccines are being developed to combat these diseases, including proteins.
One of the newest advances in the diagnosis of meningitis is routine CSF analysis. In
addition to the usual gram-stained smear, routine CSF analysis is becoming more useful for determining the diagnosis of meningitis, especially bacterial meningitis.
These findings are important because bacterial meningitis is usually fatal and debilitating.
A study comparing the effectiveness of CSF analysis for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in the clinical setting has been conducted.
Despite its cost, CSF analysis has numerous advantages. It is a crucial investigation for the diagnosis of acute neurological conditions, such as meningitis.
The results of CSF analysis can help doctors establish a diagnosis, prognosticate, and measure the effect of various treatments.
Over the past decade, CSF analysis has advanced from simple protein testing to the detection of various biomarkers. Unfortunately, it is not yet widely available, and it is also very expensive.