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how long is the monkeypox virus capable of living on surfaces? there is no established standard for how long monkeypox can remain on surfaces; however, there have been instances in which a live poxvirus has survived in an unoccupied home for up to 15 days. this is despite the fact that there is no specific timeframe for how long monkeypox can remain on surfaces.

Does The New Monkeypox Have Home Remedy?


Although the New Monkeypox virus is not airborne and not as contagious as COVID-19, experts are warning parents and health care providers to pay attention to monkeypox symptoms.

Infections of monkeypox do not normally lead to serious illness and hospitalization, but symptoms can be more severe in immune-compromised individuals.

This is why vaccination is so important for protecting children.



A vaccine for monkeypox is available in some jurisdictions. While it is still an experimental treatment, some jurisdictions have broadened their guidelines for vaccination.

Monkeypox is a highly contagious disease spread by close sexual contact.

If you are in a high-risk area, the vaccine can prevent the disease and mitigate its symptoms.

It is important to note that a vaccine for monkeypox does not prevent the disease from occurring.

The MVA vaccine is available in two doses, which are given about four to eight weeks apart.

In this outbreak setting, two doses may be sufficient.

However, it is important to keep in mind that monkeypox vaccination is only effective if the person is exposed to the virus at least 14 days before the vaccination.

Moreover, you should not touch the lesion after getting the vaccine, as the virus can grow in it.

Incubation period

incubation period

The incubation period of the new monkeypoX varies according to the mode of transmission.

Non-invasive exposure involves intact skin-to-skin contact or droplet transmission.

The typical incubation period is 13 days. Invasive exposure occurs through contact with damaged skin or mucous membranes.

In this case, the incubation period is nine days. This is consistent with the incubation period of smallpox.

The incubation period of monkeypox varies depending on the region where the virus was first transmitted.

Some patients develop additional symptoms before developing lesions. Other patients are contagious during the early stages of infection.

Genital lesions are more common in monkeypox infections. In the United States alone, the CDC has identified 46 cases of genital lesions. The incubation period of the new monkeypox



The New Monkeypox Treatment is a highly effective antiviral drug that blocks the reproduction of the monkeypox virus.

TPOXX is currently approved by the FDA for use against smallpox in humans.

While this drug is not yet widely available, it has been shown to be effective in animal studies.

Because of its limited availability, the CDC and FDA have placed many restrictions on the drug’s use.

Diagnosis is often based on a tissue sample taken from the open sore.

This sample is then sent to a laboratory for polymerase chain reaction testing (PCR). Other diagnostic tests may be performed, including biopsy.

The best samples are taken from skin lesions or the roof of vesicles. The patient may also need antibiotics for secondary bacterial infections. However, the disease is usually self-limited.



An international collaboration of researchers from 16 countries reported 528 cases of confirmed monkeypox. The average duration of incubation for the new disease was 7 days.

One in 10 cases involved a single anogenital lesion and 15 percent reported rectal pain.

Symptoms of the new monkeypox outbreak are similar to those of syphilis but different.

While monkeypox is typically characterized by fever, skin lesions, and abdominal pain, the new virus can be more subtle.

The incubation period for monkeypox is usually six to 13 days but can vary from five to 21 days. During the incubation period, patients often experience fever, muscle aches, and flu-like symptoms.

A blister-like rash develops on the face and may spread to other parts of the body.

It may also appear in the genital area or anal region. The incubation period varies between five and 21 days.


how long is the monkeypox virus capable of living on surfaces? there is no established standard for how long monkeypox can remain on surfaces; however, there have been instances in which a live poxvirus has survived in an unoccupied home for up to 15 days. this is despite the fact that there is no specific timeframe for how long monkeypox can remain on surfaces.

There are several steps that you can take to prevent monkeypox. The first step is to isolate yourself from others until the scabs fall off and fresh skin forms on the affected area.

While it may sound ridiculous, isolation is necessary even in the late stages of recovery because the monkeypox virus can easily spread to other people.

If you are experiencing respiratory symptoms, you should also stay home and away from others until the scabs fall off and fresh skin forms on the affected area.

The symptoms of monkeypox include fever and rash. You may also experience flu-like symptoms, such as fatigue and extreme fatigue. Monkeypox is contagious and can affect people of any age.

It can lead to serious complications, particularly in children and those with weak immune systems.

Even if you are not infected, prevention is better than cure. When it is in your system, you can pass the virus to others through skin-to-skin contact, the touch of surfaces, and respiratory secretions.


Additionally, people ask

What do you do if you’ve been diagnosed with monkeypox?

Care and Treatment for Patients Suffering from Monkeypox
There is currently no approved treatment for monkeypox specifically. People who are at high risk for severe illness or who have severe symptoms from monkeypox may be eligible for treatment with the antiviral medication tecovirimat (TPOXX), which has been approved for the treatment of smallpox.

Will the symptoms of monkeypox go away on their own?

Even if you don’t think you’ve been in contact with anyone who has monkeypox but you still have symptoms of the disease, you need to make an appointment with a medical professional as soon as possible. The majority of people who contract monkeypox recover completely within two to four weeks without the intervention of any medical professionals.

Is there any evidence that Benadryl can treat monkeypox?

When it comes to relieving itching, oral antihistamines like Benadryl as well as topical creams like calamine lotion or petroleum jelly might be helpful. The dry and itchy sensations that can come along with the rash can be alleviated to some degree by soaking in a warm bath (using oatmeal or other bath products available over-the-counter that are formulated for itchy skin).

How do I clear up this case of monkey rash?

There is currently no cure or treatment available for infections caused by the monkeypox virus. However, due to the fact that the monkeypox virus and the smallpox virus share genetic similarities, antiviral drugs and vaccines that were originally developed to protect against smallpox can also be used to prevent and treat infections caused by the monkeypox virus.

How exactly does one go about treating monkeypox at home?

The majority of cases of monkeypox are considered mild. It’s possible that all you need to get better is some sleep, sitz baths, topical Vaseline, antihistamines (Benadryl) for the itchiness, and pain medications like acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil).

How soon after infection do symptoms of monkeypox begin to appear?

If you become infected with monkeypox, it can take anywhere from five to twenty-one days for the first symptoms to appear after infection. The fever that initially characterizes monkeypox is one of the first symptoms to appear. a painful headache

What kind of ointment is helpful for treating monkeypox?

In addition to tecovirimat, the antiviral topical treatment trifluridine can be used to treat ocular complications associated with monkeypox. Patients who have lesions on the eyelid or near the eye should be started on tecovirimat, and trifluridine drops should be considered as a possible preventative treatment for those patients. This is because of the risk of autoinoculation.

If you have monkeypox, can you still take a shower?

the sheets, towels, and clothes should all be washed in a standard detergent in a washing machine set to at least 60 degrees Celsius. Before beginning the washing process, soiled laundry should not be shaken but rather carefully gathered. After isolating yourself from other people, you should get a shower and put on clean clothes before interacting with other people. After you get out of the shower, dry off with clean towels.

How long is the monkeypox virus capable of living on surfaces?

There is no established standard for how long monkeypox can remain on surfaces; however, there have been instances in which a live poxvirus has survived in an unoccupied home for up to 15 days. This is despite the fact that there is no specific timeframe for how long monkeypox can remain on surfaces.



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I Regret My Laser Eye Surgery for My Wedding—Here’s What I Wish I Knew



regret my laser eye surgery for my wedding

I Regret My Laser Eye Surgery for My Wedding—Here’s What I Wish I Knew

Laser eye surgery is often touted as a miracle solution for those tired of glasses and contact lenses. But what happens when this seemingly perfect procedure goes wrong? This is the story of Erin Orchard, who underwent laser eye surgery to make her wedding day perfect, only to face unexpected and prolonged consequences. Her journey underscores the importance of informed consent and thorough communication in healthcare.

Deciding on Laser Eye Surgery

In 2019, at the age of 31, Erin Orchard decided to undergo eye surgery. The reasoning behind this decision was deeply personal. She was engaged and struggling with contact lenses for her upcoming wedding, just a few months away. While it may seem like a minor inconvenience, it was significant to her at the time.

Recommendations and Evaluation

Erin’s mother and several friends had undergone laser eye surgery and recommended it. The allure of being free from glasses or contacts on her wedding day, especially given her active lifestyle and frequent gym visits, was compelling.

She made an appointment to see if she was a candidate for the surgery. After a thorough evaluation, she was confirmed as a perfect candidate. Erin spent roughly a month weighing the pros and cons before deciding to proceed.

The Assurance of Safety

The surgeon assured Erin that the procedure was extremely safe, calling it one of the safest surgeries in the world. He spent considerable time convincing her of its safety, which was crucial as she was quite anxious.

Potential Risks Mentioned

The surgeon highlighted that he had treated professional athletes who quickly returned to their sports after surgery. He mentioned potential downsides, like mild dry eye and the possibility of needing glasses again in the future. However, the risk of corneal neuralgia was not discussed, nor was it included on the consent form.

The Day of the Surgery

On the day of the surgery, Erin was very anxious. The thought of something going inside her eye was daunting. Her incredibly supportive partner accompanied her.

Change of Procedure

Before the surgery, the medical team gave her Valium to help calm her nerves. Initially, Erin was scheduled for LASIK (Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis), but due to her anxiety, they switched to PRK (Photorefractive Keratectomy) because she couldn’t keep the suction cup for LASIK steady.

Post-Surgery Challenges

Reflecting on that day, Erin wishes the medical team had recognized her anxiety and allowed her more time to reconsider. If they had, she might have opted out of the surgery. Informed consent is something she now strongly advocates for, especially after her experience.

Immediate Pain and Discomfort

After the surgery, which lasted about 15 minutes, Erin went home to rest. The next day, she began feeling significant pain and discomfort. At a follow-up appointment, she was told that the pain was normal and part of the immediate recovery phase. They assured her she would be fine to return to work by Monday. However, the pain worsened over the week and lasted for months.

Long-Term Consequences

Erin developed extreme light sensitivity, making it difficult to go outside or look at screens. This condition persisted for several months. She was constantly in pain. During this time, she and her partner had to block out light from their home, and Erin wore dark sunglasses even indoors.

Struggles with Light Sensitivity

The light sensitivity eventually improved, but the pain did not. Erin took a month off work as she struggled to function normally. She reached out to the clinic multiple times, but their responses did little to alleviate her distress.

Chronic Pain Management

Erin was prescribed a lot of pain medication, and her GP and other specialists worked hard to help her manage the pain. Despite their efforts, she still experiences pain daily, even five years later. Some days are more manageable than others, but the unpredictability of the pain can make life challenging.

Considering Legal Action

Erin considered legal action but decided against it due to the potential costs. Her interactions with the surgeon’s team were uncomfortable, and she eventually cut off contact, requesting that any necessary information be communicated through her GP.

Filing a Formal Complaint

She filed a formal complaint with the health department, which was still being investigated when the surgeon unfortunately passed away from COVID-19. This added a twist to her story, but the investigation led to changes in the clinic’s policies regarding patient information on the risks of corneal neuralgia.

Reflections and Advocacy

Overall, Erin’s journey has been a roller coaster. She no longer shares this story often, partly because of the surgeon’s passing. However, she feels it’s important for others to be fully informed before undergoing such procedures. Her experience highlights the need for thorough communication and informed consent in healthcare.

Erin’s Current Life

Erin Orchard is a 36-year-old student from Sydney, Australia, currently studying for her Master of Occupational Therapy. Alongside her studies, she is deeply involved in animal welfare as the Cat Coordinator at Maggie’s Rescue. She also provides pet-sitting services for dogs and cats in her local area.


Erin’s experience serves as a cautionary tale for anyone considering laser eye surgery. While the promise of perfect vision without glasses or contacts is tempting, it’s crucial to understand all potential risks and to advocate for thorough informed consent. Her story reminds us of the importance of being fully aware of the possible consequences before making significant medical decisions.


1. What are the common risks of laser eye surgery?

Laser eye surgery can have several risks, including dry eyes, glare, halos, under-corrections, over-corrections, and in rare cases, more severe complications like corneal neuralgia.

2. What is corneal neuralgia?

Corneal neuralgia is a condition where the nerves in the cornea are damaged, causing chronic pain. This risk was not discussed with Erin before her surgery.

3. What is the difference between LASIK and PRK?

LASIK involves creating a flap in the cornea, while PRK removes the outer layer of the cornea entirely. PRK has a longer recovery time but is often recommended for patients with thinner corneas.

4. How long does recovery from laser eye surgery typically take?

Recovery time can vary, but most people return to normal activities within a few days to a week. However, full visual stabilization can take several months.

5. What should patients ask their surgeons before laser eye surgery?

Patients should ask about all potential risks, the surgeon’s experience, alternative treatments, and the detailed recovery process. It’s essential to ensure all concerns are addressed before proceeding.


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Study Shows Teenagers Can Pass Mental Health Disorders to Each Other



mental disorders spread between teenagers

Study Shows Teenagers Can Pass Mental Health Disorders to Each Other

A groundbreaking study published in the journal JAMA Psychiatry reveals that mental disorders can spread among teenagers through their social networks. The research, conducted by a team from the University of Helsinki, highlights a significant association between having friends with mental disorders and the likelihood of developing similar conditions.

The Study and Its Findings

Research Background

The study analyzed data from over 710,000 Finnish students across 860 high schools. The primary objective was to determine if there was a correlation between having friends diagnosed with mental disorders and the risk of developing such disorders.

Key Findings

  • Initial Diagnosis and Follow-Up: By the ninth grade, about 47,000 students had been diagnosed with some form of mental disorder. During a follow-up period, an additional 167,000 students (25% of the total) received a diagnosis.
  • Risk Factors: The presence of more than one diagnosed classmate increased the overall risk of developing a mental disorder by 5%. Notably, the risk surged to 9% with one diagnosed classmate and 18% with multiple diagnosed classmates during the first year of follow-up.
  • Disorder Types: The most significant risks were associated with mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders.

Implications of the Findings

The researchers concluded that mental disorders might be transmitted within adolescent peer networks. This discovery underscores the importance of considering peer influences in mental health interventions.

Mechanisms of Transmission

Normalization of Mental Disorders

One proposed mechanism is the normalization of mental health issues within peer groups. Increased awareness and acceptance of mental health diagnoses can lead to a higher likelihood of seeking help and receiving a diagnosis.

Interpersonal Contagion

For certain disorders, such as depression, the study suggests the possibility of direct interpersonal contagion. Peer influence is particularly significant among teenagers, making them vulnerable to conditions like eating disorders through social interactions.

Societal and Cultural Influences

Michaela James, a mental health researcher at Swansea University, emphasizes that the rise in mental health diagnoses is not solely due to peer influence. She points to broader societal and cultural issues, such as declining physical health, unhealthy eating habits, and increased emotional and behavioral difficulties among young people.

Broader Context and Future Directions

The Role of the Pandemic

James highlights that the COVID-19 pandemic and its restrictions may have exacerbated mental health issues. The study’s findings suggest that pre-existing, undiagnosed disorders might become more apparent in social networks, rather than mental health issues spreading like a contagion.

Need for Comprehensive Interventions

The researchers advocate for prevention and intervention measures that consider peer influences on mental health. They stress the importance of addressing physical skills, promoting confidence and autonomy in physical activities, and enhancing overall well-being and socialization.

Further Research

While the study establishes a clear association, the exact mechanisms driving this phenomenon remain unclear. Further research is needed to explore how and why mental disorders spread within social networks and to develop effective interventions.


The study from the University of Helsinki provides crucial insights into the spread of mental disorders among teenagers. Understanding the role of peer networks in mental health can inform more effective prevention and intervention strategies, ultimately reducing the burden of mental disorders in society.


1. How do mental disorders spread among teenagers?

Mental disorders can spread through social networks among teenagers. This may occur through normalization of mental health issues, direct interpersonal contagion, or broader societal and cultural influences.

2. What types of mental disorders are most likely to spread among teens?

The study found that mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders were most likely to spread among teens through their social networks.

3. What role does the COVID-19 pandemic play in the spread of mental disorders among teenagers?

The pandemic and its accompanying restrictions may have exacerbated mental health issues among teenagers, making pre-existing, undiagnosed disorders more apparent within social networks.

4. What can be done to prevent the spread of mental disorders among teenagers?

Effective prevention and intervention measures should consider peer influences on mental health. Promoting physical activities, confidence, autonomy, and overall well-being are crucial.

5. What further research is needed to understand the spread of mental disorders among teenagers?

Further research is required to clarify the mechanisms that explain the association between peer networks and mental health disorders and to develop targeted interventions.


  • University of Helsinki Study on Mental Disorders and Peer Influence
  • Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Psychiatry
  • Michaela James’ comments on mental health trends
  • Newsweek article on the impact of societal changes on mental health

News Source: Newsweek Article on Mental Disorders in Teenagers

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How Often Do I Need to Get the Yellow Fever Vaccine?



need to get the yellow fever vaccine

How Often Do I Need to Get the Yellow Fever Vaccine?

Yellow fever is a serious viral infection spread by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions. If you’re planning to travel to areas where yellow fever is prevalent, it’s crucial to understand the vaccination requirements and schedules.

In this comprehensive guide, we will explore how often you need to get the yellow fever vaccine, what the vaccine entails, and other essential information to keep you safe and informed.

Understanding Yellow Fever

Yellow fever is caused by a virus transmitted by the Aedes and Haemagogus species of mosquitoes. Symptoms can range from mild fever and headache to severe liver disease with bleeding and jaundice. The yellow fever vaccine is highly effective in preventing this disease.

What Is the Yellow Fever Vaccine?

The yellow fever vaccine is a live-attenuated vaccine, which means it contains a weakened form of the virus that stimulates the immune system to build protection without causing the disease.

Why Is the Vaccine Important?

The yellow fever vaccine is essential for preventing infection in areas where the virus is endemic. Many countries require proof of vaccination for travelers arriving from regions with yellow fever.

Vaccination Schedule

Initial Dose

The initial dose of the yellow fever vaccine is typically given at least 10 days before travel to an endemic area. This single dose provides lifelong protection for most individuals.

Booster Dose

Historically, a booster dose was recommended every 10 years for those at continued risk. However, recent studies have shown that a single dose of the vaccine provides lifelong immunity for most people.

Exceptions Requiring Boosters

  • Children vaccinated before age 2: They may need a booster dose if they continue to live or travel to endemic areas.
  • Pregnant women: Vaccination during pregnancy is generally avoided unless the risk of yellow fever is high. In such cases, the woman might need a booster dose later.
  • Individuals with weakened immune systems: Those with conditions that suppress the immune system might require additional doses.

Who Should Get Vaccinated?

Travelers to Endemic Areas

Anyone traveling to or living in areas where yellow fever is endemic should receive the vaccine.

Lab Workers

Individuals who work with the yellow fever virus in laboratories should be vaccinated.


  • Infants under 9 months: Not routinely recommended due to the risk of serious adverse reactions.
  • People with severe egg allergies: The vaccine is cultured in eggs and may cause reactions.
  • Individuals with weakened immune systems: This includes those undergoing chemotherapy or with conditions like HIV.

Side Effects and Safety

Common Side Effects

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches
  • Soreness at the injection site

Rare but Serious Side Effects

  • Severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis)
  • Neurological conditions like encephalitis
  • Organ system failure (yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease)

Proof of Vaccination

International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP)

This is an official document that proves you have been vaccinated against yellow fever. It’s required for entry into some countries and should be carried with you when traveling.

Vaccination Documentation

Ensure your vaccination records are up to date and include the date of vaccination and the administering healthcare provider’s information.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. How Long Before Travel Should I Get Vaccinated?

You should get vaccinated at least 10 days before your trip. This allows enough time for the vaccine to provide protection.

2. Is One Dose Enough for Life?

For most people, a single dose provides lifelong immunity. However, certain individuals may require booster doses.

3. Can I Get the Vaccine If I Am Pregnant?

Pregnant women should avoid the vaccine unless the risk of yellow fever is high. Consult with your healthcare provider for personalized advice.

4. What Should I Do If I Lose My Vaccination Certificate?

If you lose your ICVP, contact the healthcare provider or clinic where you received the vaccine for a replacement.

5. Are There Any Travel Restrictions Related to Yellow Fever?

Yes, many countries require proof of vaccination for travelers coming from areas with yellow fever. Check the specific requirements of your destination.

6. What If I Have a Severe Allergy to Eggs?

If you have a severe egg allergy, you should not receive the yellow fever vaccine. Consult with your healthcare provider for alternative options.

7. Can Children Receive the Yellow Fever Vaccine?

Children aged 9 months and older can receive the vaccine. Those under 9 months should not be vaccinated unless they are traveling to high-risk areas.

8. Can I Get Yellow Fever from the Vaccine?

No, the vaccine contains a live-attenuated virus that is not capable of causing the disease in healthy individuals.

9. What Should I Do If I Experience Side Effects?

If you experience mild side effects, such as fever or soreness, they should resolve on their own. For severe reactions, seek medical attention immediately.

10. Are There Alternative Vaccines Available?

Currently, there is no alternative to the yellow fever vaccine. Preventative measures include avoiding mosquito bites through the use of repellents and protective clothing.

11. How Does Yellow Fever Compare to Other Mosquito-Borne Diseases?

Yellow fever is more severe than diseases like dengue or Zika, with higher fatality rates and the potential for serious complications.

12. Can I Travel Without the Vaccine?

Traveling without the vaccine to endemic areas is not recommended and may be restricted by certain countries. Always check the vaccination requirements for your destination.

13. Is the Vaccine Covered by Insurance?

Many insurance plans cover the cost of the yellow fever vaccine. Check with your provider for details.

14. Can I Receive Other Vaccines at the Same Time?

Yes, the yellow fever vaccine can be administered simultaneously with other vaccines, but always consult with your healthcare provider for the best schedule.


Getting vaccinated against yellow fever is a crucial step in protecting yourself from a potentially deadly disease, especially if you are traveling to areas where the virus is endemic. While a single dose of the vaccine provides lifelong protection for most people, certain individuals may need booster doses under specific circumstances.

Always consult with your healthcare provider to ensure you are up to date with your vaccinations and understand the requirements for your travel destinations.

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