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What is Cancer and How Does it Develop?



Cancer and How Does it Develop

Last Updated on October 20, 2022 by Nurse Vicky

What is Cancer and How Does it Develop?


Usually, cancer starts from a primary tumor. However, some forms of cancer develop from cells in the blood.

In this case, the cancer cells do not form solid tumors, but instead, build up in the blood and bone marrow.

Every cell has a control center known as a nucleus, which contains chromosomes made up of thousands of genes.

These genes are composed of long strings of DNA, which are coded messages in the cell.

Cells divide uncontrollably



Cells divide uncontrollably

cancer is a dise that starts when a group of cells develops an abnormal change in their DNA. These cancer cells then organize into a growth called a tumor.

If they are allowed to grow uncontrolled, they can break free and form new tumors in other areas of the body. This abnormal growth of cells can be caused by a gene or exposure to environmental chemicals.

Most cancers are caused by a combination of these two factors. When a cancer cell begins to divide uncontrollably, it loses its ability to self-destruct.

This is a natural process that every cell has. But cancer cells acquire the ability to avoid this natural process and divide uncontrollably, resulting in cancer.

The process of cancer development can take several stages. Scientists believe that cancer develops from DNA mutations, which cause cells to divide uncontrollably.

This process can occur in one cell in a million, so each cell’s DNA has a chance to change

DNA is copied as a cell divides. This process is usually error-free, and the daughter cells’ genetic information matches the parent cell’s.

DNA changes randomly sometimes. Mutations are random alterations. These alterations may kill the cell or allow it to grow and divide.

Changes in cell-division-controlling DNA are infrequent. Once this critical cell cycle DNA behaves incorrectly, malignant cells may proliferate through recurrent, uncontrolled mitosis and cytokinesis.

They multiply till nutrients run out. Carcinogens induce some mutations.

Carcinogens include tobacco smoke, radiation (X-rays, UV rays from tanning beds and sunshine), viruses (HPV, hepatitis B), plastics, and organic solvents. Viruses and bacteria can cause cancer


Viruses are tiny ‘organisms’ that live in the cells of other organisms.

They use the host cell as a reservoir for their genetic material and replicate there, using the host cell’s components to complete their life cycle.

Although many viruses are harmless, some can cause cancer. These are called oncogenic viruses.

Viruses are a major cause of cancer, and they account for around 20 percent of all cancer cases in humans.

Viruses cause cancer through a variety of mechanisms. They can directly damage DNA and interfere with the functions of essential regulatory genes.

There are a number of ways to prevent the spread of cancer caused by viruses.

These include obtaining vaccinations, being cautious with sex, and not sharing needles or drug injection equipment with others.

In addition, doctors should monitor the patient for signs of complications from viruses to detect the early stages of cancer.

Long-term exposure to carcinogens

Long-term exposure to carcinogens

Long-term exposure to carcinogens is linked to the development of cancer. These substances alter DNA within cells and interfere with normal cellular function.

The altered DNA promotes cell division and prevents self-destructing cells (apoptosis).

While some carcinogens are naturally occurring, most are man-made. Exposure to carcinogens is a major cause of cancer.

The risk of developing cancer is increased by a number of factors, including the type of carcinogen and the duration of exposure.

Fortunately, there are ways to stop exposure to carcinogens and avoid cancer altogether.

Genetic predisposition

Genetic predisposition

Some families may seek genetic testing to see if there is a hereditary predisposition to cancer.

They may have one or more children with cancer and they are concerned that cancer will affect other members of the family.

Likewise, families that have several adults with cancer may wonder if it runs in the family.

It’s important to understand that genetic predisposition does not mean you’re doomed to early death or a life of illness.

It differs from having a congenital genetic disease, which is a condition you develop at birth.

Millions of people with genetic predispositions live long and healthy lives.

Nonetheless, knowing the risk factors and the steps you can take to remain healthy can help you decide how to proceed.

Genetic predisposition increases the risk of disease. Genealogy typically explains the trait. Variations in genes are passed down. Sometimes, they’re different from a healthy person’s genes.

A relative may have the same disease or condition. A hereditary predisposition does not guarantee illness. An illness is caused by an external agent.

Treatment options


Treatment options

Treatment options for cancer are based on the type and stage of the disease.

Treatment options can range from radiation therapy and surgery to chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation.

The goal of each treatment is to destroy cancerous cells while trying to minimize the damage to healthy cells. Drug-assisted cancer treatment is a promising new treatment option with for many types of cancer. The first results of new clinical trials of cancer drugs have shown that they can have a significant therapeutic effect on patients with lung cancer as well as other types of cancer.

A doctor will advise on which treatments are best for your specific cancer. If the cancer is caught in its early stages, it may be treatable.

A medical oncologist will administer chemotherapy to destroy cancer cells that have spread to other parts of the body. It may also be combined with surgery.


Additionally, many ask

 Cause  of Cancer  Develop


Cancer arises when normal systems that control cell behavior fail and a rogue cell becomes the progenitor of aberrant cells. Over time, cells accumulate genetic harm.


People also wonder what factors contribute to the onset of cancer.

DNA mutations within cells are what ultimately lead to the development of cancer. A cell’s DNA is packaged into a huge number of individual genes, each of which includes a set of instructions informing the cell what functions to perform, as well as how to grow and divide. These instructions are passed down through the cell’s generations.


What factors contribute to the onset of cancer?


DNA mutations within cells are what ultimately lead to the development of cancer. A cell’s DNA is packaged into a huge number of individual genes, each of which includes a set of instructions informing the cell what functions to perform, as well as how to grow and divide. These instructions are passed down through the cell’s generations.

Which of the following is the initial stage in the development of cancer?


Initiation is the earliest stage in the progression of cancer, during which a change in the genetic material of a cell, known as a mutation, prepares the cell to develop into a malignant one. The alteration in the genetic makeup of the cell may take place all by itself or it may be the result of exposure to an agent that causes cancer (a carcinogen).

What exactly are the three phases of the development of cancer?


The carcinogenesis theory, which posits that cancer may be broken down into three distinct stages, is one of the most widely accepted theories for how cancer can arise. According to this hypothesis, the formation of cancer may be broken down into three stages: the beginning, the promotion, and the progression.

Can you tell me about the five stages of cancer?


The cancer has not spread to any lymph nodes or other tissues and is confined to a small location. This is the first stage. Cancer has progressed to stage II, but has not yet spread across the body. The cancer has progressed to stage III, which indicates that it has grown in size and may have migrated to lymph nodes or other tissues. Cancer has progressed to other organs or parts of the body, which is the definition of stage IV.




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How to Maintain Healthy Eating Habits at Social Events



Sister Regina Liu

How to Maintain Healthy Eating Habits at Social Events

Social events often pose a challenge to maintaining healthy eating habits. With an abundance of delicious yet unhealthy food options, it’s easy to stray from your nutritional goals.

However, by planning and making mindful choices, you can enjoy social gatherings without compromising your health. Here are some practical tips to help you maintain healthy eating habits at social events.

Plan Ahead

Eat Before You Go

Before attending a social event, eat a small, healthy meal. This can help curb your appetite and prevent overeating. Choose foods high in protein and fiber, such as a chicken salad or a bowl of oatmeal with fruits.

Research the Menu

If the event is at a restaurant or has a set menu, research the options beforehand. Look for healthy choices and decide what you will order in advance. This can help you avoid impulsive decisions when you’re hungry and tempted by less healthy options.

Make Smart Choices

Opt for Smaller Portions

It’s easy to overindulge at social events, especially when the food is served buffet-style. Opt for smaller portions to enjoy a variety of foods without overeating. Use a smaller plate if possible, and fill it with vegetables and lean proteins first.

Choose Healthy Alternatives

Look for healthier alternatives to traditional party foods. For example, choose grilled chicken over fried chicken, or a vegetable platter over chips and dip. If you’re hosting the event, consider providing healthy options for your guests.

Stay Hydrated

Drink Water

Staying hydrated is essential for maintaining healthy eating habits. Drink plenty of water throughout the event to help you feel full and avoid mistaking thirst for hunger. If you’re drinking alcohol, alternate with water to stay hydrated and reduce your alcohol intake.

Avoid Sugary Drinks

Sugary drinks, such as soda and fruit punch, can add a significant amount of empty calories to your diet. Opt for water, sparkling water, or unsweetened tea instead.

Be Mindful of Alcohol

Limit Your Intake

Alcohol can lower your inhibitions and lead to overeating. Limit your alcohol intake to avoid this. If you do choose to drink, opt for lower-calorie options such as a wine spritzer or a light beer.

Eat Before Drinking

Eating a healthy meal before drinking can help slow the absorption of alcohol and prevent you from getting too intoxicated, which can lead to poor food choices.

Practice Mindful Eating

Pay Attention to Your Hunger Cues

Listen to your body and eat when you’re hungry, not just because food is available. Take small bites, chew thoroughly, and savor the flavors. This can help you enjoy your food more and eat less.

Avoid Mindless Eating

Social events often involve a lot of mingling and distractions, which can lead to mindless eating. Be aware of what and how much you’re eating, and avoid standing near the food table to reduce temptation.

Bring Your Healthy Dish

Contribute a Healthy Option

If you’re attending a potluck or a family gathering, bring a healthy dish to share. This ensures that there will be at least one nutritious option available, and it can inspire others to make healthier choices as well.

Offer to Help with Meal Prep

If you’re close to the host, offer to help with meal preparation. This can give you some control over the menu and an opportunity to suggest or prepare healthier options.

Set Realistic Goals

Allow Yourself to Indulge in Moderation

It’s okay to indulge in your favorite treats occasionally. Allow yourself to enjoy small portions of your favorite foods without guilt. This can prevent feelings of deprivation and make it easier to stick to your healthy eating habits in the long run.

Focus on Socializing

Remember that social events are about spending time with friends and family. Focus on socializing and enjoying the company, rather than making food the main attraction.

Stay Active

Incorporate Physical Activity

If possible, incorporate physical activity into the event. This could be as simple as a walk after the meal or playing a game of catch. Physical activity can help offset some of the extra calories consumed and keep you energized.

Dance the Night Away

If there’s music and dancing, take advantage of it! Dancing is a fun way to burn calories and stay active while enjoying the event.

Maintain a Positive Mindset

Don’t Stress Over Perfection

It’s important to remember that one meal or one event won’t make or break your healthy eating habits. Don’t stress over perfection. Instead, focus on making the best choices you can and getting back on track with your regular eating habits after the event.

Celebrate Your Successes

Celebrate the small victories, such as choosing a healthy option or stopping when you’re full. Acknowledging your successes can boost your confidence and help you stay motivated.

that you can enjoy guilt-free.


Maintaining healthy eating habits at social events requires planning, mindful choices, and a focus on socializing rather than just food. By implementing these strategies, you can enjoy social gatherings without compromising your health. Remember, it’s all about balance and making the best choices for your well-being.


1. How can I resist the temptation of unhealthy foods at social events?

To resist temptation, eat a healthy meal before attending the event, stay hydrated, and focus on socializing rather than food. Bringing your healthy dish can also help.

2. What are some healthy snack options to bring to a potluck?

Healthy snack options include vegetable platters with hummus, fruit salads, whole-grain crackers with cheese, and Greek yogurt with mixed berries.

3. How do I handle peer pressure to eat unhealthy foods?

Politely decline or take a small portion to satisfy your peers without compromising your dietary goals. You can also explain your commitment to healthy eating if comfortable.

4. Is it okay to indulge occasionally at social events?

Yes, occasional indulgence is fine. The key is moderation. Enjoy small portions of your favorite treats without overindulging.

5. What should I do if I overeat at a social event?

Don’t stress about it. Return to your healthy eating habits at your next meal and consider increasing your physical activity to balance out the extra calories.

References :

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“NHS Doctors Dismissed Our Symptoms as Menopause – What We Experience is Much More Severe”



"NHS Doctors Dismissed Our Symptoms as Menopause

“NHS Doctors Dismissed Our Symptoms as Menopause – What We Experience is Much More Severe”

In recent years, a growing number of individuals have faced challenges in receiving appropriate medical attention for their health conditions.

Many have reported that their symptoms, often dismissed as merely menopausal, are part of a broader and more serious health crisis.

This article delves into the experiences of those affected, exploring the ramifications of misdiagnosis and the urgent need for greater awareness and understanding within the healthcare system.

Understanding the Symptoms

Individuals experiencing symptoms often associated with menopause, such as hot flashes, mood swings, and fatigue, may be facing more complex health issues.

These symptoms can stem from various underlying conditions, which may require different treatment approaches. Misidentification of these symptoms can lead to inadequate care and a worsening of the individual’s health.

The Impact of Misdiagnosis

Misdiagnosis can have serious consequences. When healthcare professionals dismiss legitimate concerns, patients may feel invalidated and lose trust in the healthcare system.

This can result in delays in receiving necessary treatments, worsening symptoms, and deteriorating mental health.

Case Studies: Real Voices, Real Experiences

  1. Sarah’s Story Sarah, a 45-year-old woman, began experiencing severe fatigue and joint pain. Initially brushed off as menopausal symptoms, she later discovered she had an autoimmune disorder that required immediate treatment. Sarah’s experience highlights the importance of comprehensive examinations and not hastily attributing symptoms to menopause.
  2. Tom’s Journey Tom, a 50-year-old man, experienced mood swings and significant weight changes. His doctor attributed these changes to mid-life hormonal shifts. After seeking a second opinion, Tom was diagnosed with thyroid dysfunction, a condition that was treatable but had been overlooked.

The Need for Awareness and Education

Increasing awareness among both patients and healthcare providers about the potential seriousness of overlooked symptoms is crucial. Educational initiatives and training for healthcare professionals can lead to better diagnostic practices and improved patient outcomes.

Symptoms That Should Not Be Ignored

Certain symptoms should prompt further investigation rather than immediate dismissal. These include:

  • Severe fatigue
  • Unexplained weight loss or gain
  • Persistent joint or muscle pain
  • Significant mood changes
  • Memory loss or cognitive difficulties

Recognizing these symptoms can lead to earlier diagnoses and interventions, potentially preventing further health complications.

Advocating for Change in the Healthcare System

Advocacy is key in addressing the challenges faced by those experiencing misdiagnosed health conditions. Patient advocacy groups play an essential role in raising awareness, providing resources, and pushing for changes within healthcare systems.

Empowering Patients

Empowering patients to take charge of their health can foster better communication with healthcare providers.

Here are some tips for individuals navigating their health concerns:

  • Educate Yourself: Understand your symptoms and research potential conditions that could be affecting you.
  • Seek Second Opinions: Don’t hesitate to consult another doctor if you feel your concerns aren’t being taken seriously.
  • Document Your Symptoms: Keeping a journal of your symptoms can provide valuable information to your healthcare provider.


The issue of misdiagnosis related to menopause and other serious health conditions is critical and demands immediate attention.

By fostering greater awareness and encouraging open dialogue between patients and healthcare providers, we can work towards a healthcare system that better serves everyone.

Understanding that symptoms may signify more severe health issues is the first step toward effective treatment and improved quality of life.


1. What should I do if my symptoms are dismissed by my doctor?

If your symptoms are not being taken seriously, consider seeking a second opinion and documenting your symptoms to present a comprehensive case.

2. How can I educate myself about potential health issues?

Research reputable medical sources, talk to healthcare professionals, and consider joining support groups for shared experiences and knowledge.

3. Are there specific tests that can help diagnose underlying conditions?

Yes, depending on your symptoms, doctors may recommend blood tests, imaging studies, or referrals to specialists.

4. What resources are available for patient advocacy?

Many organizations focus on patient advocacy; researching local and national groups can provide valuable support and resources.

5. How can I improve communication with my healthcare provider?

Prepare for appointments by noting your symptoms, asking clear questions, and expressing your concerns confidently.


For more detailed information, visit the original article here.

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Measles Outbreak at NYC Migrant Shelter Highlights Public Health Concerns Amid Border Crisis



Measles Outbreak at NYC Migrant Shelter

Measles Outbreak at NYC Migrant Shelter Highlights Public Health Concerns Amid Border Crisis

The recent detection of measles at a migrant shelter in New York City has intensified the debate surrounding the ongoing border crisis and its public health implications. This development has raised alarms among health officials and the public, highlighting the need for comprehensive strategies to manage the influx of migrants while safeguarding public health.

Understanding the Measles Outbreak

Measles, a highly contagious viral disease, poses a significant health risk, especially in densely populated areas. The outbreak at the NYC migrant shelter has put a spotlight on the challenges faced by public health officials in managing and containing such diseases within vulnerable populations.

The Impact of Measles

  • Highly Contagious: Measles spreads through respiratory droplets, making it easy to transmit in crowded conditions.
  • Severe Complications: The disease can lead to severe complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis, and even death, particularly in children and immunocompromised individuals.
  • Vaccination: Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, measles outbreaks still occur, often linked to unvaccinated populations.

The Border Crisis and Public Health

The ongoing border crisis has resulted in an unprecedented number of migrants entering the United States. Many of these individuals come from regions with lower vaccination rates and inadequate healthcare infrastructure, increasing the risk of disease outbreaks.

Challenges in Migrant Shelters

  • Overcrowding: Migrant shelters often operate at or beyond capacity, creating conditions conducive to the rapid spread of infectious diseases.
  • Limited Resources: Shelters frequently struggle with limited resources, including medical supplies and personnel, which hampers effective disease management and prevention.
  • Healthcare Access: Migrants may have limited access to healthcare services, including vaccinations, both in their home countries and upon arrival in the U.S.

Federal Response and Policy Implications

The Biden administration has faced criticism over its handling of the border crisis and its impact on public health. Critics argue that the administration’s policies have contributed to the current situation, while supporters contend that the challenges are multifaceted and require a comprehensive approach.

Policy Measures

  • Enhanced Screening: Implementing robust health screening protocols for migrants upon entry to identify and manage infectious diseases early.
  • Vaccination Programs: Expanding vaccination programs within migrant shelters to prevent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases.
  • Resource Allocation: Ensuring adequate resources, including medical staff and supplies, are available at migrant shelters to address health concerns promptly.

Public Health Strategies

Addressing the public health challenges posed by the border crisis requires coordinated efforts from federal, state, and local agencies, as well as collaboration with non-governmental organizations (NGOs).

Preventive Measures

  • Vaccination Campaigns: Launching targeted vaccination campaigns in high-risk areas and among migrant populations to reduce the risk of outbreaks.
  • Public Awareness: Increasing public awareness about the importance of vaccination and the risks associated with measles and other infectious diseases.
  • Community Health Programs: Developing community health programs that provide education, resources, and support to both migrants and local communities.


The measles outbreak at the NYC migrant shelter underscores the complex interplay between public health and immigration policy.

As the border crisis continues to evolve, it is crucial to adopt comprehensive strategies that address both the immediate health needs of migrants and the broader public health concerns.

Enhanced screening, vaccination programs, and resource allocation are essential components of a robust public health response. By prioritizing these measures, we can mitigate the risks posed by infectious diseases and protect the health and well-being of all individuals.


1. What caused the measles outbreak at the NYC migrant shelter?

The outbreak is likely due to the combination of overcrowded conditions, limited healthcare access, and the presence of unvaccinated individuals within the shelter.

2. How can measles be prevented in migrant shelters?

Prevention can be achieved through robust vaccination programs, enhanced health screenings, and improving living conditions to reduce overcrowding.

3. What are the complications of measles?

Measles can lead to severe complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis, and even death, particularly in children and immunocompromised individuals.

4. How is the Biden administration addressing the public health concerns related to the border crisis?

The administration is implementing enhanced screening protocols, expanding vaccination programs, and allocating resources to address health concerns in migrant shelters.

5. Why is vaccination important in preventing measles outbreaks?

Vaccination is crucial because it provides immunity against measles, reducing the risk of outbreaks and protecting vulnerable populations from severe complications.


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