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What Causes Meningitis in Children?

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What Causes Meningitis in Children? Viruses, Bacteria, and Fungal Infections

 

What Causes Meningitis in Children? Viruses, Bacteria, and Fungal Infections! Find out what causes meningitis and how to treat it.

In addition, find out how to avoid CT scans! Here are some symptoms to watch out for. In addition, read on to find out how to deal with the symptoms of meningitis in children.

Hopefully, this article will answer your question!

Viruses cause meningitis

 viruses meningitis

 

Viruses cause meningitis, but if your child has this condition, you should seek medical treatment as soon as possible.

Children who have weak immune systems and those on immune-suppressing medications are at greater risk. The most common causes are bacterial and viral infections.

Both types of meningitis can lead to long-term complications. Children with bacterial meningitis may have difficulty hearing, difficulty with their reflexes, or even seizures.

A doctor should prescribe antibiotics for these symptoms.

Antibiotics aren’t very effective against bacterial and viral infections, so you need to seek medical attention if your child develops meningitis.

Antibiotics can reduce the symptoms of meningitis and may be ineffective. In most cases, meningitis in children will clear up without medical treatment, but you should seek prompt medical attention if you suspect your child has this illness.

Bacteria

 

bacteria

While most cases of meningitis are caused by viruses, bacterial meningitis is a different story. Though viral meningitis can be dangerous, it rarely requires antibiotics.

Herpes simplex virus, for example, can cause meningitis, but the condition is not life-threatening. It is a relatively uncommon cause of meningitis in children.

Fortunately, bacterial meningitis is treatable, and vaccines can prevent it.

While bacterial meningitis is most common in infants, adults with certain risk factors are also susceptible.

These risk factors include alcohol abuse, chronic nose, and ear infections, head injuries, and pneumococcal pneumonia.

People with compromised immune systems also increase their risk of contracting the disease.

While there is no known cure for this infection, it is highly treatable. It can also be prevented through proper hygiene.

Fungal infection

 

screenshot 2022 09 30 at 14.04.34

A fungal infection can lead to meningitis in children. Symptoms of fungal meningitis include intense inflammation of the meninges, accumulation of exudates, and opacification of the lepto-meninges.

Some patients develop cranial neurovascular syndromes, such as multiple cerebral aneurysms. The diagnosis of fungal meningitis should be made early because the mortality rate is high.

There are two types of fungal meningitis: acute fungal meningitis and chronic fungal meningitis. Acute fungal meningitis is unusual and usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals, while chronic fungal meningitis is fairly common.

Acute fungal meningitis typically presents with headaches, nausea, vomiting, and fever, and can be associated with seizures. Children with this infection also often have elevated ICP and focal or generalized neurologic deficits.

The fungus, or pseudomycetes, passes through the blood-CSF barrier and causes meningitis.

CT scans

 

screenshot 2022 09 30 at 14.07.26

CT scans for suspected meningitis are routinely ordered before lumbar puncture. Still, the study found that this practice does not reduce the risk of herniation and prolongs the course of treatment.

The study aimed to determine the incidence of abnormalities in children with suspected meningitis, as well as the conditions that lead to abnormalities.

The study examined 86 children, excluding those with no previous diagnosis of meningitis.

Of these 86 patients, 94.2% of CT scans showed no abnormalities, and only a small percentage of them had suspected meningitis.

The study included 116 cases of suspected meningitis, 55.2% of which were male. The most common age group was five to nine years, while the second largest was under five.

Of the 101 children with meningitis, 86 cases were examined by CT scan before lumbar puncture.

Six of these cases showed abnormal scans, whereas 100 patients underwent LP. In the majority of cases, CSF studies indicated aseptic meningitis, while bacterial meningitis was found in ten cases.

In addition, six patients with suspected meningitis underwent CT scans.

Herpes simplex virus

 

screenshot 2022 09 30 at 14.10.23

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection can lead to severe complications, including meningitis, and can be fatal. Symptoms of a herpes infection should be noted and reported to a doctor as soon as possible.

Keeping this information handy will facilitate your doctor’s diagnosis, and help you get treatment sooner. Here are a few signs that your child may have a herpes virus infection.

As the name suggests, the herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family. It is the most common cause of human viral disease.

Meningitis is a complication of HSV primary infection. Researchers collected cerebrospinal fluid from 45 children displaying symptoms of meningitis. Samples were analyzed for viral, biochemical, and cytology tests. DNA was extracted from the samples for PCR.

 

 

 

Additionally, people ask

How does a child get meningitis?

 

In most cases, meningitis is brought on by a bacterial or viral infection that spreads into the cerebral spinal fluid (also known as CSF), which is the fluid that fills the open spaces in the brain and serves to cushion and protect the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis can also be brought on by a fungus or a parasite. Meningitis is caused by a number of different infections.

Bacterial meningitis can be caused by a wide variety of different bacteria.

 

The following are the ones that are seen the most frequently in the United States: Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) Neisseria meningitides (meningococcus)

Meningitis is caused by a number of different infections.

 

Bacterial meningitis can be caused by a wide variety of different bacteria. Streptococcus pneumonia is the one that occurs most frequently in the United States (pneumococcus) Neisseria meningitides (meningococcus)

How does one come down with meningitis?

 

Coughing, sneezing, kissing, or sharing eating utensils, a toothbrush, or a cigarette are all common ways in which bacteria and viruses that can cause meningitis can be transmitted from person to person. Meningitis can be avoided by following these preventative measures: Please clean your hands. Washing one’s hands thoroughly and frequently can help stop the spread of germs. What is the prognosis for viral meningitis on October

How long does viral meningitis last?

 

The majority of people who become ill with viral meningitis typically feel completely better within seven to ten days after becoming ill. Even if you’ve been immunized, there’s a chance you could still get meningitis.
In addition, the MenB vaccine can be administered to adolescents, ideally between the ages of 16 and 18. Taking a complement inhibitor like eculizumab (Soliris®) or ravulizumab (Ultomiris®), for example, raises the likelihood that you will develop meningococcal disease. You are still at risk of contracting meningococcal disease, despite having received the meningococcal vaccine.

 

Conclusion

 

Tell us anything you know about ” What Causes Meningitis in Children? Viruses, Bacteria, and Fungal Infections?

 

Remember your health is wealth

Please, let us know your thoughts in the comments section.

 

 

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I Regret My Laser Eye Surgery for My Wedding—Here’s What I Wish I Knew

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I Regret My Laser Eye Surgery for My Wedding—Here’s What I Wish I Knew

Laser eye surgery is often touted as a miracle solution for those tired of glasses and contact lenses. But what happens when this seemingly perfect procedure goes wrong? This is the story of Erin Orchard, who underwent laser eye surgery to make her wedding day perfect, only to face unexpected and prolonged consequences. Her journey underscores the importance of informed consent and thorough communication in healthcare.

Deciding on Laser Eye Surgery

In 2019, at the age of 31, Erin Orchard decided to undergo eye surgery. The reasoning behind this decision was deeply personal. She was engaged and struggling with contact lenses for her upcoming wedding, just a few months away. While it may seem like a minor inconvenience, it was significant to her at the time.

Recommendations and Evaluation

Erin’s mother and several friends had undergone laser eye surgery and recommended it. The allure of being free from glasses or contacts on her wedding day, especially given her active lifestyle and frequent gym visits, was compelling.

She made an appointment to see if she was a candidate for the surgery. After a thorough evaluation, she was confirmed as a perfect candidate. Erin spent roughly a month weighing the pros and cons before deciding to proceed.

The Assurance of Safety

The surgeon assured Erin that the procedure was extremely safe, calling it one of the safest surgeries in the world. He spent considerable time convincing her of its safety, which was crucial as she was quite anxious.

Potential Risks Mentioned

The surgeon highlighted that he had treated professional athletes who quickly returned to their sports after surgery. He mentioned potential downsides, like mild dry eye and the possibility of needing glasses again in the future. However, the risk of corneal neuralgia was not discussed, nor was it included on the consent form.

The Day of the Surgery

On the day of the surgery, Erin was very anxious. The thought of something going inside her eye was daunting. Her incredibly supportive partner accompanied her.

Change of Procedure

Before the surgery, the medical team gave her Valium to help calm her nerves. Initially, Erin was scheduled for LASIK (Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis), but due to her anxiety, they switched to PRK (Photorefractive Keratectomy) because she couldn’t keep the suction cup for LASIK steady.

Post-Surgery Challenges

Reflecting on that day, Erin wishes the medical team had recognized her anxiety and allowed her more time to reconsider. If they had, she might have opted out of the surgery. Informed consent is something she now strongly advocates for, especially after her experience.

Immediate Pain and Discomfort

After the surgery, which lasted about 15 minutes, Erin went home to rest. The next day, she began feeling significant pain and discomfort. At a follow-up appointment, she was told that the pain was normal and part of the immediate recovery phase. They assured her she would be fine to return to work by Monday. However, the pain worsened over the week and lasted for months.

Long-Term Consequences

Erin developed extreme light sensitivity, making it difficult to go outside or look at screens. This condition persisted for several months. She was constantly in pain. During this time, she and her partner had to block out light from their home, and Erin wore dark sunglasses even indoors.

Struggles with Light Sensitivity

The light sensitivity eventually improved, but the pain did not. Erin took a month off work as she struggled to function normally. She reached out to the clinic multiple times, but their responses did little to alleviate her distress.

Chronic Pain Management

Erin was prescribed a lot of pain medication, and her GP and other specialists worked hard to help her manage the pain. Despite their efforts, she still experiences pain daily, even five years later. Some days are more manageable than others, but the unpredictability of the pain can make life challenging.

Considering Legal Action

Erin considered legal action but decided against it due to the potential costs. Her interactions with the surgeon’s team were uncomfortable, and she eventually cut off contact, requesting that any necessary information be communicated through her GP.

Filing a Formal Complaint

She filed a formal complaint with the health department, which was still being investigated when the surgeon unfortunately passed away from COVID-19. This added a twist to her story, but the investigation led to changes in the clinic’s policies regarding patient information on the risks of corneal neuralgia.

Reflections and Advocacy

Overall, Erin’s journey has been a roller coaster. She no longer shares this story often, partly because of the surgeon’s passing. However, she feels it’s important for others to be fully informed before undergoing such procedures. Her experience highlights the need for thorough communication and informed consent in healthcare.

Erin’s Current Life

Erin Orchard is a 36-year-old student from Sydney, Australia, currently studying for her Master of Occupational Therapy. Alongside her studies, she is deeply involved in animal welfare as the Cat Coordinator at Maggie’s Rescue. She also provides pet-sitting services for dogs and cats in her local area.

Conclusion

Erin’s experience serves as a cautionary tale for anyone considering laser eye surgery. While the promise of perfect vision without glasses or contacts is tempting, it’s crucial to understand all potential risks and to advocate for thorough informed consent. Her story reminds us of the importance of being fully aware of the possible consequences before making significant medical decisions.

FAQs

1. What are the common risks of laser eye surgery?

Laser eye surgery can have several risks, including dry eyes, glare, halos, under-corrections, over-corrections, and in rare cases, more severe complications like corneal neuralgia.

2. What is corneal neuralgia?

Corneal neuralgia is a condition where the nerves in the cornea are damaged, causing chronic pain. This risk was not discussed with Erin before her surgery.

3. What is the difference between LASIK and PRK?

LASIK involves creating a flap in the cornea, while PRK removes the outer layer of the cornea entirely. PRK has a longer recovery time but is often recommended for patients with thinner corneas.

4. How long does recovery from laser eye surgery typically take?

Recovery time can vary, but most people return to normal activities within a few days to a week. However, full visual stabilization can take several months.

5. What should patients ask their surgeons before laser eye surgery?

Patients should ask about all potential risks, the surgeon’s experience, alternative treatments, and the detailed recovery process. It’s essential to ensure all concerns are addressed before proceeding.


References

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Study Shows Teenagers Can Pass Mental Health Disorders to Each Other

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mental disorders spread between teenagers

Study Shows Teenagers Can Pass Mental Health Disorders to Each Other

A groundbreaking study published in the journal JAMA Psychiatry reveals that mental disorders can spread among teenagers through their social networks. The research, conducted by a team from the University of Helsinki, highlights a significant association between having friends with mental disorders and the likelihood of developing similar conditions.

The Study and Its Findings

Research Background

The study analyzed data from over 710,000 Finnish students across 860 high schools. The primary objective was to determine if there was a correlation between having friends diagnosed with mental disorders and the risk of developing such disorders.

Key Findings

  • Initial Diagnosis and Follow-Up: By the ninth grade, about 47,000 students had been diagnosed with some form of mental disorder. During a follow-up period, an additional 167,000 students (25% of the total) received a diagnosis.
  • Risk Factors: The presence of more than one diagnosed classmate increased the overall risk of developing a mental disorder by 5%. Notably, the risk surged to 9% with one diagnosed classmate and 18% with multiple diagnosed classmates during the first year of follow-up.
  • Disorder Types: The most significant risks were associated with mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders.

Implications of the Findings

The researchers concluded that mental disorders might be transmitted within adolescent peer networks. This discovery underscores the importance of considering peer influences in mental health interventions.

Mechanisms of Transmission

Normalization of Mental Disorders

One proposed mechanism is the normalization of mental health issues within peer groups. Increased awareness and acceptance of mental health diagnoses can lead to a higher likelihood of seeking help and receiving a diagnosis.

Interpersonal Contagion

For certain disorders, such as depression, the study suggests the possibility of direct interpersonal contagion. Peer influence is particularly significant among teenagers, making them vulnerable to conditions like eating disorders through social interactions.

Societal and Cultural Influences

Michaela James, a mental health researcher at Swansea University, emphasizes that the rise in mental health diagnoses is not solely due to peer influence. She points to broader societal and cultural issues, such as declining physical health, unhealthy eating habits, and increased emotional and behavioral difficulties among young people.

Broader Context and Future Directions

The Role of the Pandemic

James highlights that the COVID-19 pandemic and its restrictions may have exacerbated mental health issues. The study’s findings suggest that pre-existing, undiagnosed disorders might become more apparent in social networks, rather than mental health issues spreading like a contagion.

Need for Comprehensive Interventions

The researchers advocate for prevention and intervention measures that consider peer influences on mental health. They stress the importance of addressing physical skills, promoting confidence and autonomy in physical activities, and enhancing overall well-being and socialization.

Further Research

While the study establishes a clear association, the exact mechanisms driving this phenomenon remain unclear. Further research is needed to explore how and why mental disorders spread within social networks and to develop effective interventions.

Conclusion

The study from the University of Helsinki provides crucial insights into the spread of mental disorders among teenagers. Understanding the role of peer networks in mental health can inform more effective prevention and intervention strategies, ultimately reducing the burden of mental disorders in society.


FAQs

1. How do mental disorders spread among teenagers?

Mental disorders can spread through social networks among teenagers. This may occur through normalization of mental health issues, direct interpersonal contagion, or broader societal and cultural influences.

2. What types of mental disorders are most likely to spread among teens?

The study found that mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders were most likely to spread among teens through their social networks.

3. What role does the COVID-19 pandemic play in the spread of mental disorders among teenagers?

The pandemic and its accompanying restrictions may have exacerbated mental health issues among teenagers, making pre-existing, undiagnosed disorders more apparent within social networks.

4. What can be done to prevent the spread of mental disorders among teenagers?

Effective prevention and intervention measures should consider peer influences on mental health. Promoting physical activities, confidence, autonomy, and overall well-being are crucial.

5. What further research is needed to understand the spread of mental disorders among teenagers?

Further research is required to clarify the mechanisms that explain the association between peer networks and mental health disorders and to develop targeted interventions.


References

  • University of Helsinki Study on Mental Disorders and Peer Influence
  • Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Psychiatry
  • Michaela James’ comments on mental health trends
  • Newsweek article on the impact of societal changes on mental health

News Source: Newsweek Article on Mental Disorders in Teenagers

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How Often Do I Need to Get the Yellow Fever Vaccine?

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How Often Do I Need to Get the Yellow Fever Vaccine?

Yellow fever is a serious viral infection spread by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions. If you’re planning to travel to areas where yellow fever is prevalent, it’s crucial to understand the vaccination requirements and schedules.

In this comprehensive guide, we will explore how often you need to get the yellow fever vaccine, what the vaccine entails, and other essential information to keep you safe and informed.

Understanding Yellow Fever

Yellow fever is caused by a virus transmitted by the Aedes and Haemagogus species of mosquitoes. Symptoms can range from mild fever and headache to severe liver disease with bleeding and jaundice. The yellow fever vaccine is highly effective in preventing this disease.

What Is the Yellow Fever Vaccine?

The yellow fever vaccine is a live-attenuated vaccine, which means it contains a weakened form of the virus that stimulates the immune system to build protection without causing the disease.

Why Is the Vaccine Important?

The yellow fever vaccine is essential for preventing infection in areas where the virus is endemic. Many countries require proof of vaccination for travelers arriving from regions with yellow fever.

Vaccination Schedule

Initial Dose

The initial dose of the yellow fever vaccine is typically given at least 10 days before travel to an endemic area. This single dose provides lifelong protection for most individuals.

Booster Dose

Historically, a booster dose was recommended every 10 years for those at continued risk. However, recent studies have shown that a single dose of the vaccine provides lifelong immunity for most people.

Exceptions Requiring Boosters

  • Children vaccinated before age 2: They may need a booster dose if they continue to live or travel to endemic areas.
  • Pregnant women: Vaccination during pregnancy is generally avoided unless the risk of yellow fever is high. In such cases, the woman might need a booster dose later.
  • Individuals with weakened immune systems: Those with conditions that suppress the immune system might require additional doses.

Who Should Get Vaccinated?

Travelers to Endemic Areas

Anyone traveling to or living in areas where yellow fever is endemic should receive the vaccine.

Lab Workers

Individuals who work with the yellow fever virus in laboratories should be vaccinated.

Exemptions

  • Infants under 9 months: Not routinely recommended due to the risk of serious adverse reactions.
  • People with severe egg allergies: The vaccine is cultured in eggs and may cause reactions.
  • Individuals with weakened immune systems: This includes those undergoing chemotherapy or with conditions like HIV.

Side Effects and Safety

Common Side Effects

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches
  • Soreness at the injection site

Rare but Serious Side Effects

  • Severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis)
  • Neurological conditions like encephalitis
  • Organ system failure (yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease)

Proof of Vaccination

International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP)

This is an official document that proves you have been vaccinated against yellow fever. It’s required for entry into some countries and should be carried with you when traveling.

Vaccination Documentation

Ensure your vaccination records are up to date and include the date of vaccination and the administering healthcare provider’s information.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. How Long Before Travel Should I Get Vaccinated?

You should get vaccinated at least 10 days before your trip. This allows enough time for the vaccine to provide protection.

2. Is One Dose Enough for Life?

For most people, a single dose provides lifelong immunity. However, certain individuals may require booster doses.

3. Can I Get the Vaccine If I Am Pregnant?

Pregnant women should avoid the vaccine unless the risk of yellow fever is high. Consult with your healthcare provider for personalized advice.

4. What Should I Do If I Lose My Vaccination Certificate?

If you lose your ICVP, contact the healthcare provider or clinic where you received the vaccine for a replacement.

5. Are There Any Travel Restrictions Related to Yellow Fever?

Yes, many countries require proof of vaccination for travelers coming from areas with yellow fever. Check the specific requirements of your destination.

6. What If I Have a Severe Allergy to Eggs?

If you have a severe egg allergy, you should not receive the yellow fever vaccine. Consult with your healthcare provider for alternative options.

7. Can Children Receive the Yellow Fever Vaccine?

Children aged 9 months and older can receive the vaccine. Those under 9 months should not be vaccinated unless they are traveling to high-risk areas.

8. Can I Get Yellow Fever from the Vaccine?

No, the vaccine contains a live-attenuated virus that is not capable of causing the disease in healthy individuals.

9. What Should I Do If I Experience Side Effects?

If you experience mild side effects, such as fever or soreness, they should resolve on their own. For severe reactions, seek medical attention immediately.

10. Are There Alternative Vaccines Available?

Currently, there is no alternative to the yellow fever vaccine. Preventative measures include avoiding mosquito bites through the use of repellents and protective clothing.

11. How Does Yellow Fever Compare to Other Mosquito-Borne Diseases?

Yellow fever is more severe than diseases like dengue or Zika, with higher fatality rates and the potential for serious complications.

12. Can I Travel Without the Vaccine?

Traveling without the vaccine to endemic areas is not recommended and may be restricted by certain countries. Always check the vaccination requirements for your destination.

13. Is the Vaccine Covered by Insurance?

Many insurance plans cover the cost of the yellow fever vaccine. Check with your provider for details.

14. Can I Receive Other Vaccines at the Same Time?

Yes, the yellow fever vaccine can be administered simultaneously with other vaccines, but always consult with your healthcare provider for the best schedule.

Conclusion

Getting vaccinated against yellow fever is a crucial step in protecting yourself from a potentially deadly disease, especially if you are traveling to areas where the virus is endemic. While a single dose of the vaccine provides lifelong protection for most people, certain individuals may need booster doses under specific circumstances.

Always consult with your healthcare provider to ensure you are up to date with your vaccinations and understand the requirements for your travel destinations.

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