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The Causes of Pain on the Left Side of the Abdomen

Last Updated on July 18, 2023 by Nurse Vicky

Unraveling the Mystery: The Causes of Pain on the Left Side of the Abdomen

Abdominal pain can be an unsettling experience, and when it occurs on the left side, it often leaves us in a quandary. The pain can be sharp and sudden or dull and constant. Either way, the question arises: what could be the underlying cause?

Understanding Your Abdomen

To begin our exploration, it’s important to understand the structure of the abdomen. On the left side, several organs come into play: the stomach, the left kidney, part of the liver, the spleen, portions of the pancreas and large intestine, and in women, the left ovary and fallopian tube.

Any disease or injury to these organs can manifest as pain on the left side of the abdomen. Let’s delve deeper into the common conditions that could be the culprit.

 Gastric Causes

Gastritis and Gastric Ulcers

The stomach, being the main organ on the left side of the abdomen, is often the source of left-sided abdominal pain. Gastritis, an inflammation of the stomach lining, often results in dull pain. It can be caused by factors like excessive alcohol consumption, long-term use of certain medications, bacterial infections, and diseases like Crohn’s and autoimmune disorders.

Gastric ulcers, on the other hand, are painful sores on the stomach lining. They usually cause a burning sensation or pain in the middle or left side of the abdomen, especially on an empty stomach.


Commonly known as a stomach bug, gastroenteritis is characterized by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, including the stomach and intestines. It is usually caused by a bacterial or viral infection. Symptoms can include left-sided abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration.

Pancreatic Causes

The pancreas, though predominantly located on the left side of the abdomen, can cause pain on either side or even radiate to the back.

Pancreatitis refers to inflammation of the pancreas, which can be acute or chronic. Acute pancreatitis often presents as severe, sudden pain in the abdomen, whereas chronic pancreatitis manifests as recurring or persistent abdominal pain.

 Splenic Causes


The spleen, located on the upper left side of the abdomen, generally doesn’t cause pain unless it becomes enlarged—a condition called splenomegaly.

This enlargement could be due to various reasons such as infection, liver diseases, blood diseases, or cancer. Symptoms are usually vague but can include pain or fullness in the left upper abdomen that may spread to the left shoulder.

Renal Causes

Kidney Stones

The left kidney, located towards the back of the abdomen, can cause pain when there is an issue, such as a kidney stone. This solid mass forms from crystals in the urine and can cause severe pain in the back or side, beneath the ribs, or the lower abdomen and groin. The pain often comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity.

Kidney Infection

A kidney infection, or pyelonephritis, often causes severe, one-sided back pain that can extend to the lower abdomen. Other symptoms can include fever, frequent urination, and blood or pus in the urine.

Gynecological Causes (in Women)

Ovarian Cysts

In women, left-sided abdominal pain can originate from the reproductive system. One common cause is ovarian cysts. These fluid-filled sacs form on the ovaries and are often painless. However, if a cyst ruptures or causes the ovary to twist, it can cause sudden, severe pain on one side of the lower abdomen, including the left side.

Ectopic Pregnancy

An ectopic pregnancy, where a fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, can also cause lower left abdominal pain. This is a medical emergency and needs immediate attention.

Digestive Tract Causes

Diverticulitis, an inflammation or infection of small pouches that can form in the wall of the colon, can cause persistent pain in the lower left abdomen, fever, and constipation or diarrhea.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

Conditions such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, part of a group of disorders known as IBD, can cause long-term inflammation and sores in the digestive tract, leading to symptoms like abdominal pain, cramping, and diarrhea.

When to Seek Medical Help

Understanding the potential causes of left-sided abdominal pain can help you identify the severity of your condition. However, it’s crucial to seek immediate medical attention if your abdominal pain is severe, lasts more than a few hours, or is accompanied by other symptoms like fever, nausea, vomiting, unexplained weight loss, or yellowing of the skin and eyes.


Frequently Asked Questions


What could be the cause of sharp pain on the left side of the abdomen?

Sharp pain on the left side of the abdomen could be due to conditions like kidney stones, diverticulitis, or in women, ovarian cysts or ectopic pregnancy.

Can gas cause pain on the left side of the abdomen?

Yes, gas can cause pain on either side of the abdomen due to the accumulation of gas in the digestive tract.

Is pain on the left side of the abdomen a sign of a heart attack?

While heart attacks typically cause chest pain, they can sometimes present as upper abdominal pain, nausea, or indigestion. However, this pain is usually central or on the right side, not typically on the left side.

Can stress cause left-sided abdominal pain?

Yes, stress can cause a variety of physical symptoms, including abdominal pain. This is due to the body’s response to stress, which can include slowed digestion and tightened stomach muscles.

Can left-sided abdominal pain be a sign of cancer?

Certain types of cancer, like stomach, colon, and ovarian cancer, can cause left-sided abdominal pain. However, pain alone is a non-specific symptom and usually accompanies other symptoms like unexplained weight loss and changes in bowel habits.

How is the cause of left-sided abdominal pain diagnosed?

Diagnosis usually involves a combination of a physical examination, medical history, and tests like blood tests, urine tests, imaging studies (like X-rays, CT scans, or ultrasounds), and endoscopic procedures.

Is left-sided abdominal pain always a cause for concern?

Not always. While it can be a sign of various medical conditions, some causes, like gas or indigestion, are not serious. However, severe, persistent, or worsening pain should always be evaluated by a doctor.

What home remedies can help with left-sided abdominal pain?

Home remedies depend on the cause of the pain. Over-the-counter antacids could help with indigestion. A heating pad could ease muscle tension or menstrual cramps.

For gas, over-the-counter gas relief medications or dietary changes can help. It’s important to note that these remedies should not replace medical advice, especially for severe or persistent pain.

What kind of doctor should I see for left-sided abdominal pain?

A primary care physician should be the first point of contact. Depending on the suspected cause, you may be referred to a gastroenterologist (for digestive tract issues), a urologist (for kidney issues), or a gynecologist (for women’s reproductive issues).

Can drinking water help with left-sided abdominal pain?

Staying hydrated can help with certain causes of abdominal pain, like kidney stones and constipation. However, it won’t cure underlying conditions, and it’s important to seek medical advice for ongoing or severe pain.


Pain in the left side of the abdomen can be attributed to various causes, ranging from gastric issues to kidney stones to gynecological problems in women.

By understanding the possible causes, you can better communicate your symptoms to your healthcare provider, leading to faster diagnosis and effective treatment. Remember, timely medical advice is key when dealing with abdominal pain.

References and Further Reading

  1. Gastritis – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic
  2. Gastroenteritis – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic
  3. Pancreatitis – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic
  4. Kidney stones – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic
  5. Ovarian cysts – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic
  6. Ectopic pregnancy – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic
  7. Diverticulitis – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic
  8. Crohn’s disease – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic

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