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 How to Treat Eczema: A Comprehensive Guide

Last Updated on May 18, 2023 by Nurse Vicky

 How to Treat Eczema: A Comprehensive Guide

Eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a chronic skin condition that causes itching, redness, and dryness. It is a common condition, affecting millions of people worldwide, and can occur at any age, but is most common in children.

The exact cause of eczema is unknown, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Some common triggers include stress, changes in temperature, exposure to irritants, and certain foods.

Understanding Eczema and its Symptoms


Eczema is a skin condition that affects millions of people worldwide.It is characterized by dry, itchy, and inflamed skin. Eczema can be a chronic condition, which means that it can last for an extended period and recur at different times.

Types of Eczema There are several types of eczema, including:

  • Atopic Dermatitis: This is the most common type of eczema and is often hereditary. It affects people of all ages and can be accompanied by hay fever or asthma.
  • Contact Dermatitis: This type of eczema is caused by direct contact with an irritant or allergen, such as detergents, soap, or certain materials.
  • Dyshidrotic Eczema: This type of eczema is characterized by small, fluid-filled blisters on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.
  • Nummular Eczema: This type of eczema is characterized by coin-shaped patches on the skin that are dry and scaly.
  • Stasis Dermatitis: This type of eczema occurs as a result of poor blood flow in the legs and is more common in older adults.

Causes of Eczema The exact cause of eczema is unknown, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Some common triggers of eczema include:

  • Allergens: Exposure to allergens such as dust mites, pet dander, and pollen can trigger eczema symptoms.
  • Irritants: Exposure to certain chemicals, soaps, and detergents can cause skin irritation and trigger eczema.
  • Dry skin: Dry skin can make eczema symptoms worse and can also trigger eczema.
  • Stress: Stress can also trigger eczema symptoms and make them worse.
  • Hormonal changes: Hormonal changes, such as during puberty or pregnancy, can also trigger eczema.

Symptoms of Eczema The symptoms of eczema can vary from person to person and can range from mild to severe.

Common symptoms of eczema include:

  • Itchy skin: Eczema can cause the skin to become extremely itchy, which can be unbearable and lead to scratching and further irritation.
  • Dry skin: Eczema can cause the skin to become dry, scaly, and rough.
  • Red and inflamed skin: Eczema can cause the skin to become red, swollen, and inflamed.
  • Blisters: Some types of eczema can cause fluid-filled blisters to form on the skin.
  • Cracks and sores: Eczema can cause the skin to crack and form sores, which can become infected if not treated.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Eczema


Diagnosing Eczema If you suspect that you have eczema, it is essential to see a doctor for a proper diagnosis. Your doctor will perform a physical examination of your skin and ask about your symptoms and medical history.

They may also perform a skin test to determine if you have any allergies that could be triggering your eczema.  Skin Tests for Eczema Several skin tests can be performed to determine if you have eczema and what may be triggering your symptoms.

These tests include:

Patch Test:

During a patch test, small amounts of common allergens are placed on the skin and covered with a patch. The patches are removed after a set amount of time, and the doctor will observe the skin for any reactions.
  • Prick Test: During a prick test, small amounts of allergens are placed on the skin, and a needle is used to prick the skin and allow the allergen to penetrate.
  • The skin is then observed for any reactions.
  • Intradermal Test: During an intradermal test, a small amount of allergen is injected into the skin, and the skin is observed for any reaction
  •  Treating Eczema can be challenging, as there is no cure.
  • However, there are several ways to manage and control the symptoms of eczema.

These include:

Medications Several medications can be used to treat eczema, including:

  • Topical Corticosteroids: Topical corticosteroids are creams or ointments that are applied to the skin to reduce inflammation and itching. They come in varying strengths and can be used for short-term or long-term treatment.
  • Topical Calcineurin Inhibitors: Topical calcineurin inhibitors are creams that can be used to treat eczema. They work by suppressing the immune system and reducing inflammation.
  • Antihistamines: Antihistamines can be taken orally or applied topically to relieve itching and help you sleep.
  • Antibiotics: If your eczema becomes infected, antibiotics may be prescribed to clear up the infection.

Moisturizing is an essential part of treating eczema.


Moisturizing can help to soothe dry, itchy skin and prevent cracking and sores. Some tips for moisturizing include:

  • Use fragrance-free moisturizers: Fragrances can irritate the skin and make eczema symptoms worse. Look for fragrance-free moisturizers that are specifically formulated for sensitive skin.
  • Apply moisturizer immediately after bathing: After bathing, pat the skin dry and apply moisturizer while the skin is still damp.
  • This will help to lock in moisture and prevent dry skin.
  • Use ointments: Ointments, such as petroleum jelly, are more effective at moisturizing the skin than creams or lotions.

Avoiding Triggers: Avoiding triggers is another important part of treating eczema.

Common triggers include:

  • Allergens: Avoid exposure to allergens, such as dust mites, pet dander, and pollen.
  • Irritants: Avoid exposure to irritants, such as harsh soaps and detergents.
  • Stress: Try to manage stress through exercise, meditation, or other stress-management techniques.
  • Extreme temperatures: Avoid exposure to extreme temperatures, as hot or cold weather can make eczema symptoms worse.

Bathing and Clothing Proper bathing and clothing can also help to manage eczema symptoms.

Some tips include:

  • Use warm, not hot, water: Hot water can strip the skin of its natural oils and make eczema symptoms worse. Use warm water when bathing, and limit your bath time to 10-15 minutes.
  • Avoid harsh soaps: Use fragrance-free, gentle soaps when bathing, and avoid scrubbing the skin.
  • Pat the skin dry: After bathing, dry the skin with a soft towel. Avoid
 Diagnosis of Eczema

Diagnosing eczema can be difficult, as the symptoms can be similar to those of other skin conditions.

To diagnose eczema, a doctor will typically perform a physical exam, review the patient’s medical history, and rule out any other underlying conditions that may be causing the symptoms. In some cases, a skin biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.


Treating Eczema


There is no cure for eczema, but there are various treatments that can help manage the symptoms and reduce the severity of outbreaks.

The following are some of the most common treatments for eczema:

Topical Corticosteroids


Topical corticosteroids are one of the most commonly prescribed treatments for eczema. They work by reducing inflammation and itching and come in a variety of forms, including creams, ointments, and lotions.



Moisturizing the skin is an essential part of eczema treatment. Using a thick, fragrance-free moisturizer can help soothe dry and irritated skin and prevent itching.


Antihistamines can help relieve itching and reduce redness associated with eczema. They work by blocking the effects of histamine, a chemical that triggers itching.

Light Therapy


Light therapy, also known as phototherapy, involves exposing the skin to artificial ultraviolet (UV) light. It is often used to treat moderate to severe cases of eczema and can help reduce inflammation and itching.

Oral Medications


In severe cases, oral medications may be necessary to control eczema symptoms. These medications include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antibiotics, and immunosuppressants.

Lifestyle Changes to Improve Eczema


In addition to medical treatments, several lifestyle changes can help improve eczema and prevent outbreaks. These include:

Avoiding Triggers


Identifying and avoiding triggers is one of the most effective ways to prevent eczema outbreaks. Common triggers include stress, exposure to irritants, and certain foods.

Maintaining a Healthy Diet


Eating a balanced diet that is rich in vitamins and nutrients can help improve the overall health of the skin and reduce the severity of eczema symptoms. Some foods that have been shown to help improve eczema include omega-3 fatty acids, probiotics, and vitamin D.

Staying Hydrated


Drinking plenty of water can help keep the skin hydrated and reduce the risk of eczema outbreaks.

Managing Stress

Stress can be a trigger for eczema, so it is important to manage stress levels to prevent outbreaks. This can be done through relaxation techniques, exercise, and therapy.



Eczema is a common skin condition that can cause itching, redness, and dryness. While there is no cure for the conclusion, eczema is a common skin condition that can be difficult to treat.  However, by working with a doctor, identifying and avoiding triggers, using medications, moisturizing

regularly, and practicing proper bathing and clothing techniques, it is possible to manage and control the symptoms of eczema.  With proper treatment, many people with eczema can achieve clearer, healthier-looking skin.

If you suspect you may have eczema, it’s important to see a doctor to get an accurate diagnosis and develop an effective treatment plan.  With the right approach, it is possible to find relief from the symptoms of eczema and improve the appearance and overall health of your skin.



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