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Symptoms and Transmission of Yellow Fever




Last Updated on October 6, 2022 by Nurse Vicky

Symptoms and Transmission of Yellow Fever 


infected individuals who have symptoms of yellow fever may want to see their doctor to see if treatment is needed.

Symptoms of yellow fever can range from severe abdominal pain to bleeding in the eyes, nose, and mouth.

However, once you have been diagnosed with yellow fever, treatment options are much more limited.

Here are some tips to help you deal with the disease.

Read on to find out more about the symptoms and transmission of yellow fever.



Woman With A Hay Fever Free Stock Photo - Public Domain Pictures

Symptoms of yellow fever usually develop three to six days after the initial infection, although some individuals may not develop these symptoms right away.

Common symptoms include fever, prominent backache, vomiting dark blood, loss of appetite, and nausea.

However, the disease does not necessarily lead to death, and it is possible to recover completely and even live for several weeks.

For this reason, prevention is essential, especially for certain age groups.

While the virus is generally contagious, some strains are more serious than others, and precautions can help prevent the infection.

When the symptoms of yellow fever are present, a doctor should order a blood test to determine whether you have the disease.

The blood test will detect whether the virus is present in your blood, whether you have antibodies against the virus, and whether you have symptoms.

If the symptoms persist after a few days, your doctor may order a yellow fever blood test to check for any antibodies.

These tests may take several days to produce results.

Until the test results are available, you will need supportive care, such as fluids and oxygen, replacing the blood that has been lost, and treating secondary infections.



Symptoms and Transmission of Yellow Fever

It is believed that mosquitoes are the main source of yellow fever.

Several studies, including those by Camp Lazear in Cuba, show that mosquitoes ingest the blood of the infected person, not other infected people.

The intermediate host is the Culex fasciatus.  

Hence, female mosquitoes which feed on infected people do not carry the infectious agent. However, this theory has not been confirmed, since the earliest recorded cases of yellow fever in Cuba dated back to 1753.

The disease is transmitted by mosquitoes in both urban and forest areas.

Most recent cases of YFV in Brazil are linked to primates in the forest, but most historical outbreaks were attributed to urban transmission, which can produce large outbreaks in urban areas.

Fortunately, there is a vaccine available against the disease, but its efficacy is limited.

In Brazil, however, it is administered to residents living near forests, which are deemed at high risk for getting infected.



Symptoms and Transmission of Yellow Fever

There is no known cure for yellow fever, but vaccination against the disease is important. Treatment for yellow fever is supportive and symptomatic.

In severe cases, medications may be needed to replace fluids, combat hypotension, and possibly dialysis.

Fever sufferers should rest and get plenty of fresh air to stay hydrated.

They should also avoid alcohol and tobacco products, as these can worsen the symptoms.

Yellow fever is not life-threatening unless it involves organs, such as the brain.

In the United States, the first documented case of yellow fever was in 1793.

A doctor named Howell brought the dead to Philadelphia, where the disease was being treated.

In 1904, an article by Rosenberg, Charles E., in Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, detailed the therapeutic revolution that was underway.

Philadelphia has many organizations dedicated to the treatment of yellow fever and has even started school programs to educate students about the disease.

The first treatment of yellow fever was to give an inoculated sponge a dose of vitamin C and then to apply an ointment containing the vitamin A-rich substance tetrahydrofuran.



Yellow Fever Epidemic in Africa Shows Gaps in Vaccine Pipeline - The New York Times

Yellow fever is spread by mosquitoes. They generally bite two to three hours after dawn and during the early evening.

The best way to avoid the illness is to protect yourself from mosquito bites by sleeping under an insecticide-treated bed net.

In addition, try to stay in screened, air-conditioned rooms as much as possible.

Additionally, apply permethrin insecticide to clothing and other areas where you spend a lot of time outdoors.

The main goal of yellow fever control is prevention. Early diagnosis is the best cure, but if you do have symptoms of yellow fever, it is best to visit a doctor.

Your doctor will ask you questions to learn more about your symptoms and may also want to draw a blood sample to confirm the diagnosis.

Despite the varying severity of symptoms, there is no cure for yellow fever.

In areas that experience outbreaks of the disease, high vaccination rates can prevent the virus from spreading to others.


Additionally, many ask

What exactly is yellow fever, and what are its symptoms of it?

Image as a result of the search for Yellow Fever Symptoms and Transmission
Infected mosquitoes are the primary vectors for yellow fever, which is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease. The term “yellow” in the name of the condition relates to jaundice that some individuals experience. Fever, headache, jaundice, muscle soreness, nausea, vomiting, and fat redistribution are some of the symptoms of yellow fever.

How can one become infected with yellow fever?

Image as a result of the search for Yellow Fever Symptoms and Transmission The bite of an infected mosquito of the Aedes or Haemagogus species is the primary method by which the yellow fever virus is passed from person to person. Infected mosquitoes can pass the virus on to other primates after they have gotten the virus via feeding on human or non-human primates that are already infected with the virus (human or non-human).

Can you name five symptoms associated with yellow fever?

The beginning stages of yellow fever are characterized by a quick onset of fever, chills, a strong headache, back pain, general body pains, nausea and vomiting, weariness, and weakness. Yellow fever can also be transmitted sexually. After these early symptoms, most people experience an improvement.

What are the elements that put a person at risk for yellow fever?

The likelihood of a traveler contracting yellow fever is dependent on a number of factors, such as the individual’s immunization status, the destination of their trip, the time of year, the length of time they were exposed to the virus, their occupation, and their recreational activities while they were away, as well as the local rate of virus transmission at the time they traveled.

How does yellow fever progress through its three stages?

There are three stages of yellow fever:
Symptoms that are frequent during Stage

1 (the infection) includes a headache, aches in the muscles and joints, fever, flushing, loss of appetite, vomiting, and jaundice…

The patient no longer has a fever or any of the other signs of the disease…
Intoxication is the third stage.

There is a possibility that a number of organs, including the heart, liver, and kidneys, will be affected.

What sets yellow fever apart from malaria is its more severe symptoms.

In contrast to yellow fever, which is caused by a virus, malaria is caused by a parasite. Malaria mosquitoes and yellow fever mosquitoes are not the same species, hence the two diseases are transmitted by separate kinds of biting insects. There is a vaccination available to protect against yellow fever, but there is not one available against malaria.




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Why Am I Feeling Nauseous? Understanding the Causes and Solutions



Why Am I Feeling Nauseous

Why Am I Feeling Nauseous? Understanding the Causes and Solutions

Nausea is a common and often uncomfortable symptom that many people experience at some point in their lives.

Whether it’s a fleeting sensation or a persistent issue, understanding the causes behind nausea can help alleviate the discomfort and address any underlying issues.

This comprehensive guide delves into the various reasons why you might feel nauseous and offers practical advice for managing this unpleasant symptom.

Understanding Nausea

Nausea is the sensation of unease and discomfort in the stomach that often comes before vomiting. It’s a complex symptom with various potential causes, ranging from minor to serious.

This guide will help you understand why nausea occurs and what you can do to manage it.

Common Causes of Nausea

  1. Digestive Issues

    Gastroenteritis: Often caused by viral or bacterial infections, gastroenteritis can lead to nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach cramps.Acid Reflux: When stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, it can cause a burning sensation and nausea.Peptic Ulcers: Sores on the lining of the stomach or duodenum can cause nausea along with abdominal pain.

  2. Motion Sickness

    Motion sickness occurs when there is a conflict between the visual signals and the inner ear’s sense of balance. This can happen while traveling in cars, boats, or airplanes.

  3. Medications

    Certain medications, including antibiotics and chemotherapy drugs, can cause nausea as a side effect. It’s essential to discuss any adverse reactions with your healthcare provider.

  4. Pregnancy

    Morning sickness is a common symptom during the first trimester of pregnancy. Hormonal changes and the body’s adjustment to pregnancy can lead to nausea and vomiting.

  5. Migraines

    Migraines are severe headaches that can be accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The exact cause of migraines is not fully understood, but they can be triggered by various factors, including stress, certain foods, and hormonal changes.

  6. Food Poisoning

    Consuming contaminated food or beverages can lead to food poisoning, characterized by nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Bacteria such as Salmonella or E. coli are common culprits.

  7. Anxiety and Stress

    Emotional stress and anxiety can affect the digestive system, leading to nausea. This can be due to heightened stress responses or gastrointestinal issues exacerbated by emotional states.

  8. Underlying Medical Conditions

    Certain medical conditions, such as kidney disease, liver disease, and appendicitis, can cause nausea. If nausea persists or is accompanied by other symptoms, it’s crucial to seek medical advice.

Managing Nausea: Tips and Remedies

  1. Stay Hydrated

    Drinking clear fluids like water, herbal teas, or clear broths can help prevent dehydration, especially if nausea is accompanied by vomiting or diarrhea.

  2. Eat Small, Frequent Meals

    Consuming small amounts of bland foods such as crackers, toast, or bananas can help settle the stomach. Avoiding large meals and fatty or spicy foods is advisable.

  3. Ginger and Peppermint

    Ginger has natural anti-nausea properties and can be consumed in the form of ginger tea or ginger ale. Peppermint tea or sucking on peppermint candies can also provide relief.

  4. Rest

    Resting in a comfortable position and practicing relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing or meditation, can help reduce nausea, especially if it’s related to stress or anxiety.

  5. Avoid Strong Odors

    Strong smells, such as those from cooking or perfumes, can exacerbate nausea. Try to stay in well-ventilated areas and avoid exposure to strong odors.

  6. Over-the-Counter Medications

    Antacids, anti-nausea medications, and motion sickness tablets can be effective in managing nausea. However, it’s essential to use these medications under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

  7. Consult a Healthcare Professional

    If nausea persists, worsens, or is accompanied by severe symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, or unexplained weight loss, seek medical attention. A healthcare professional can help identify the underlying cause and recommend appropriate treatment.

When to Seek Medical Help

While occasional nausea is generally not a cause for concern, persistent or severe nausea warrants medical attention.

Signs that you should consult a healthcare provider include:

Nausea lasting more than a few days

  • Severe abdominal pain
  • High fever
  • Persistent vomiting
  • Weight loss or dehydration
  • Unexplained changes in bowel movements

Final Thoughts

Nausea can be a distressing symptom with various potential causes, ranging from mild to serious.

By understanding the underlying reasons and employing effective management strategies, you can alleviate discomfort and address any potential health issues.

If you find that nausea is affecting your quality of life or is accompanied by other concerning symptoms, don’t hesitate to seek medical advice.


  1. What should I do if my nausea is accompanied by severe headaches?

    If nausea is accompanied by severe headaches, it could be a sign of migraines or another underlying condition. Consult a healthcare provider for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

  2. Can dehydration cause nausea?

    Yes, dehydration can lead to nausea. Ensure you stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids, especially if you’re experiencing vomiting or diarrhea.

  3. Are there any home remedies for nausea during pregnancy?

    Ginger tea and small, frequent meals can help alleviate morning sickness during pregnancy. Always consult with your healthcare provider before trying new remedies.

  4. How can I differentiate between food poisoning and a stomach virus?

    Food poisoning typically comes on suddenly after eating contaminated food, while a stomach virus (gastroenteritis) may have a more gradual onset and is often accompanied by diarrhea and fever.

  5. When should I see a doctor for nausea?

    Seek medical help if nausea persists for more than a few days, is accompanied by severe symptoms, or is affecting your daily life. A healthcare provider can help determine the cause and recommend appropriate treatment.



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The Best Foods for Lowering Cholesterol: A Comprehensive Guide



Best Foods for Lowering Cholesterol

When it comes to managing cholesterol levels, diet plays a crucial role.

High cholesterol can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, making it essential to incorporate heart-healthy foods into your daily routine.

Here are some of the best foods known for their cholesterol-lowering properties:

1. Oats and Barley

Oats and barley are rich in beta-glucan, a type of soluble fiber that helps reduce LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, commonly known as “bad” cholesterol. Starting your day with a bowl of oatmeal or including barley in your soups and salads can be an excellent step towards better heart health.

2. Nuts

Almonds, walnuts, and other nuts are packed with unsaturated fats, fiber, and plant sterols. Regular consumption of nuts has been shown to lower LDL cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease. A handful of nuts as a snack or sprinkled over salads can provide significant benefits.

3. Fatty Fish

Fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. These healthy fats help reduce triglycerides, lower blood pressure, and decrease the risk of developing heart disease. Aim to include at least two servings of fatty fish in your diet each week.

4. Legumes

Beans, lentils, and chickpeas are excellent sources of soluble fiber and plant-based protein. These legumes can help lower cholesterol levels and improve overall heart health. Adding them to soups, stews, and salads is an easy way to boost your intake.

5. Fruits and Vegetables

Fruits like apples, grapes, strawberries, and citrus fruits contain pectin, a type of soluble fiber that helps lower LDL cholesterol. Vegetables such as eggplant and okra are also rich in soluble fiber and can contribute to a heart-healthy diet.

6. Olive Oil

Extra virgin olive oil is high in monounsaturated fats, which can help reduce LDL cholesterol levels. Using olive oil in place of butter or other saturated fats in cooking and salad dressings can be beneficial for your heart.

7. Avocados

Avocados are a great source of monounsaturated fats and fiber, both of which are beneficial for heart health. Including avocado in your meals, whether in salads, sandwiches, or as a spread, can help lower cholesterol levels.

8. Soy Products

Soybeans and soy products such as tofu and soy milk contain protein and isoflavones, which can help reduce LDL cholesterol levels. Replacing animal-based proteins with soy products can have positive effects on heart health.

9. Dark Chocolate

In moderation, dark chocolate can be heart-healthy. It contains flavonoids, which are antioxidants that can help reduce LDL cholesterol levels. Opt for dark chocolate with at least 70% cocoa content and enjoy it in small amounts.

10. Green Tea

Green tea is rich in catechins, antioxidants that can help lower LDL cholesterol and improve heart health. Drinking a cup of green tea daily can be a simple way to incorporate these benefits into your routine.


Incorporating these cholesterol-lowering foods into your diet can significantly improve your heart health. Alongside a balanced diet, regular exercise, and a healthy lifestyle, these foods can help you maintain optimal cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease.


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Understanding Warts: Causes, Types, and Treatments



Understanding Warts

Understanding Warts: Causes, Types, and Treatments

Warts are small, benign growths that appear on the skin, often causing distress due to their appearance and sometimes discomfort. While generally harmless, warts can be persistent and challenging to remove. This article delves into the causes of warts, their types, treatments, and prevention methods, providing a comprehensive understanding of this common skin condition.

What Are Warts?

Warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), which has more than 100 different strains. These viruses cause the skin to grow excessively, leading to the formation of a wart. While warts can appear anywhere on the body, they are most commonly found on the hands, feet, face, and genitals.

Types of Warts

Common Warts (Verruca Vulgaris)

These warts typically appear on the hands and fingers. They are rough, raised, and have a cauliflower-like surface.

Plantar Warts

Found on the soles of the feet, plantar warts can be painful due to their location. They often appear flat due to pressure from walking and can have small black dots on their surface, which are tiny blood vessels.

Flat Warts (Verruca Plana)

Flat warts are smaller and smoother than other types. They often appear on the face, thighs, or arms and tend to grow in large numbers.

Filiform Warts

These warts appear around the mouth, nose, or beard area. They are long and thread-like, making them distinctive and often more bothersome due to their location.

Genital Warts

A sexually transmitted infection caused by certain strains of HPV, genital warts appear on the genital and anal areas. They can be small or large, flat or cauliflower-like, and may cause discomfort or itching.

What Causes Warts?

Warts are caused by direct contact with HPV. The virus can be contracted through skin-to-skin contact or by touching surfaces contaminated with the virus, such as shower floors or towels. Factors that increase the risk of developing warts include:

  1. Weakened Immune System: Individuals with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to HPV infections.
  2. Damaged Skin: Cuts, scrapes, or other skin injuries can provide an entry point for the virus.
  3. Personal Habits: Nail-biting or picking at hangnails can introduce the virus to the skin.

How Are Warts Diagnosed?

Doctors usually diagnose warts based on their appearance. In some cases, a biopsy may be performed to rule out other skin conditions.

Treatment Options for Warts

While warts often go away on their own, many people seek treatment to remove them sooner.

Treatment options include:

Over-the-Counter Treatments

  1. Salicylic Acid: Available in various forms such as gels, pads, and drops, salicylic acid helps peel away the wart.
  2. Freezing Sprays: These products freeze the wart, causing it to fall off over time.

Medical Treatments

  1. Cryotherapy: Performed by a healthcare professional, this treatment involves applying liquid nitrogen to freeze the wart.
  2. Laser Treatment: Lasers can be used to destroy the blood vessels supplying the wart, causing it to die.
  3. Surgical Removal: In some cases, warts may be surgically removed, although this is usually a last resort.
  4. Cantharidin: Applied by a doctor, this substance causes a blister to form under the wart, lifting it off the skin.

Home Remedies

  1. Duct Tape: Covering the wart with duct tape for several days may help remove it.
  2. Garlic: Some people apply crushed garlic to the wart, believing its antiviral properties may help.

Prevention Tips

Preventing warts involves avoiding contact with HPV. Here are some tips to reduce the risk:

  1. Maintain Good Hygiene: Wash hands regularly and keep feet clean and dry.
  2. Avoid Direct Contact: Refrain from touching warts on yourself or others.
  3. Protect Your Feet: Wear sandals in communal showers or locker rooms.
  4. Do Not Share Personal Items: Avoid sharing towels, razors, or other personal items.

Living with Warts

While warts can be annoying, they are generally harmless and manageable. For those with persistent or bothersome warts, consulting a healthcare provider can help determine the best treatment plan.


Understanding the causes and types of warts is the first step in effective treatment and prevention. Whether opting for over-the-counter remedies, medical treatments, or home solutions, managing warts is achievable. By maintaining good hygiene and avoiding direct contact with the virus, the risk of developing warts can be significantly reduced.

FAQs about Warts

1: Can warts spread from person to person?

Yes, warts are contagious and can spread through direct skin-to-skin contact or by touching surfaces contaminated with HPV.

2: Are warts dangerous?

Warts are generally harmless, but they can be unsightly and sometimes painful. Certain types, like genital warts, require medical attention due to their association with other health risks.

3: How long do warts last?

Warts can last from a few months to several years. Some warts go away on their own, while others may require treatment.

4: Can warts be prevented?

While it’s difficult to completely prevent warts, maintaining good hygiene, avoiding direct contact with warts, and not sharing personal items can reduce the risk of getting them.

5: Is there a vaccine for warts?

There is no vaccine specifically for warts, but the HPV vaccine can protect against the strains of HPV that cause genital warts and reduce the risk of certain cancers.



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