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What Is the Treatment For the New Monkeypox?

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Last Updated on August 24, 2022 by Nurse Vicky

What Is the Treatment For the New Monkeypox?

A drug called tecovirimat is a promising treatment for monkeypox. However, it is not an approved drug and is only available through an arduous “investigative drug protocol,” which requires detailed reports to the C.D.C., detailed journal entries by patients, and photographs of lesions.

In spite of this, many clinics did not offer tecovirimat, and institutions with good financial backing could treat only two to three patients per day.

However, a patient named Nephi Niven Stogner went to a clinic on July 8 to get help for his monkeypox symptoms. He was in excruciating pain and was told that others needed more tecovirimat.

Treatments

 

treatments

The CDC recommends that people who have been exposed to monkeypox isolate themselves at home and not come in contact with others for at least two weeks.

If a person has symptoms of the illness, they should wear a mask made of good quality material while around others and stay home until the lesion heals.

Monkeypox infection can cause fever, rash, and lymphadenopathy, which is the swelling of lymph nodes.

It is best to contact your state’s health department to ensure that you have the proper protection.

Although there are no definitive treatments for monkeypox, antiviral medications can help patients deal with the symptoms and recover from the illness.

These medications are commonly used to treat smallpox and can be used in the treatment of monkeypox.

Tecovirimat is available in the US and can be used to treat patients with severe cases. Antiviral medications can also be used to prevent the disease and treat its complications.

Incubation period

incubation period

The incubation period for the new monkeypox depends on the route of transmission.

In previous outbreaks, cases had traveled to an endemic country or had sexual contact with an infected monkey or another animal.

In the outbreaks of 2022, most cases have no documented history of travel, although close contact during sexual activity may play a role in transmission.

Incubation periods vary between five and 21 days. Although the disease is endemic in some countries, outbreaks have occurred in countries that are not known to be endemic for monkeypox.

In these countries, key public health measures include active case finding, contact tracing, and isolation of close contacts.

The estimated incubation period of 21 days is long enough to justify the current quarantining practice.

The researchers also report that the disease’s incubation period may differ depending on the route of transmission.

Symptoms

 

 

symptoms

Although symptoms of the new monkeypox outbreak are similar to previous ones, the disease has subtle differences.

The latest outbreak has included at least 50 cases in Montreal alone. Some of the more unusual symptoms include rectal pain and penile edema. In addition, patients usually have systemic symptoms and swollen lymph nodes, making the disease harder to diagnose.

The disease can be contagious for up to 21 days after the first symptoms are noticed.

Although the infection usually runs its course in two to four weeks, the condition can be severe, especially in children and people with weakened immune systems.

The most severe cases can result in the loss of large sections of skin in one area. Among children, the condition is particularly deadly and can kill up to one in ten people.

Although most cases are harmless, those with weak immune systems should avoid contact with infected people for a full week.

Transmission routes

 

transmission routes monkeypox

The United Kingdom’s Health Security Agency has reported an outbreak of monkeypox. The test-positivity rate among men was 50%, while the rate among women was only 2%.

The test-positivity rate among children was less than 1%. Although it is not highly contagious, monkeypox is spread through close physical contact, which is one of the main transmission routes.

It is most commonly transmitted via sexual activity. The virus is not always fatal, but outbreaks are typically mild.

There have been four deaths reported in countries that are not usually exposed to monkeypox.

These deaths were reported in Spain, Brazil, and India. According to the CDC, there have been 103 monkeypox-related deaths in Africa since 2022.

Despite its rarity, it is important to track the transmission routes of the virus and manage outbreaks effectively.

Vaccines

 

vaccines

There are currently two licensed monkeypox vaccines available, ACAM2000 and LC16m8.

ACAM2000 was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in January 2019, but both vaccines have serious side effects.

While both vaccines are effective at preventing monkeypox, the World Health Organization has warned against the widespread use of smallpox vaccines against monkeypox.

Because of its similarity to smallpox, monkeypox has a low fatality rate. Although cases of monkeypox are often self-limiting and usually resolve within a few weeks, they can be serious if not treated properly.

Serious complications can arise if the patient is infected with a different virus, has an underlying immune deficiency, or is pregnant or nursing.

Vaccines for smallpox were previously protective but were discontinued globally after the disease was wiped out from the world.

Secondary infections can be serious, including encephalitis, bronchopneumonia, corneal infection, and blindness.

FAQ

What are the risks of monkeypox during pregnancy?

Answer

More research is needed to better understand the risks of monkeypox during pregnancy, and how the virus can be passed to the fetus in the womb or to the newborn during or after birth or while breastfeeding. Available information suggests that contracting monkeypox during pregnancy can be dangerous for the fetus.

If you are pregnant, avoid close contact with anyone who has monkeypox. Anyone who has close contact with someone who is infectious can get monkeypox, regardless of who they are.

If you think you have been exposed to or are showing symptoms that could be monkeypox, contact your healthcare provider. They will help you get tested and access the care you need.

I’ve had monkeypox in the past. Can I catch it again?

Answer

Our understanding of how long immunity lasts following monkeypox infection is currently limited. We do not yet have a clear understanding whether a previous monkeypox infection gives you immunity against future infections and for how long, if so.

Even if you have had monkeypox in the past, you should be doing everything you can to avoid getting re-infected.

If you have had monkeypox in the past and someone in your household has it now, you can protect others by being the designated caregiver, as you are more likely to have some immunity than others are. However, you should still take all precautions to avoid becoming infected.

What should I do if a child in my care has symptoms that could be monkeypox?

Answer

The monkeypox rash can resemble other common childhood illnesses, such as chickenpox and other viral infections. If a child you are caring for has symptoms that could be monkeypox, seek advice from a healthcare provider. They will help to get them tested, and to access the care they need.

Children may be at greater risk of severe monkeypox than adults. They should be closely monitored until they have recovered in case they need additional care.

A health worker responsible for the child may advise that they are cared for in a health facility. In this situation, a parent or caregiver who is healthy and at low risk of monkeypox will be allowed to isolate with them.
Answer
If other symptoms of monkeypox infection are present, but there is no rash, patients should: Be placed on empiric isolation precautions for monkeypox for 5 days after the development of any new symptom, even if this 5-day period extends beyond the original 21-day monitoring period.
Answer
 Avoid kissing or exchanging spit since monkeypox can spread this way

 Conclusion

 

Tell us anything you know about the Treatment For the New Monkeypox

 

Remember your health is wealth

 

Please, let us know your thoughts in the comments section.

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I Regret My Laser Eye Surgery for My Wedding—Here’s What I Wish I Knew

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I Regret My Laser Eye Surgery for My Wedding—Here’s What I Wish I Knew

Laser eye surgery is often touted as a miracle solution for those tired of glasses and contact lenses. But what happens when this seemingly perfect procedure goes wrong? This is the story of Erin Orchard, who underwent laser eye surgery to make her wedding day perfect, only to face unexpected and prolonged consequences. Her journey underscores the importance of informed consent and thorough communication in healthcare.

Deciding on Laser Eye Surgery

In 2019, at the age of 31, Erin Orchard decided to undergo eye surgery. The reasoning behind this decision was deeply personal. She was engaged and struggling with contact lenses for her upcoming wedding, just a few months away. While it may seem like a minor inconvenience, it was significant to her at the time.

Recommendations and Evaluation

Erin’s mother and several friends had undergone laser eye surgery and recommended it. The allure of being free from glasses or contacts on her wedding day, especially given her active lifestyle and frequent gym visits, was compelling.

She made an appointment to see if she was a candidate for the surgery. After a thorough evaluation, she was confirmed as a perfect candidate. Erin spent roughly a month weighing the pros and cons before deciding to proceed.

The Assurance of Safety

The surgeon assured Erin that the procedure was extremely safe, calling it one of the safest surgeries in the world. He spent considerable time convincing her of its safety, which was crucial as she was quite anxious.

Potential Risks Mentioned

The surgeon highlighted that he had treated professional athletes who quickly returned to their sports after surgery. He mentioned potential downsides, like mild dry eye and the possibility of needing glasses again in the future. However, the risk of corneal neuralgia was not discussed, nor was it included on the consent form.

The Day of the Surgery

On the day of the surgery, Erin was very anxious. The thought of something going inside her eye was daunting. Her incredibly supportive partner accompanied her.

Change of Procedure

Before the surgery, the medical team gave her Valium to help calm her nerves. Initially, Erin was scheduled for LASIK (Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis), but due to her anxiety, they switched to PRK (Photorefractive Keratectomy) because she couldn’t keep the suction cup for LASIK steady.

Post-Surgery Challenges

Reflecting on that day, Erin wishes the medical team had recognized her anxiety and allowed her more time to reconsider. If they had, she might have opted out of the surgery. Informed consent is something she now strongly advocates for, especially after her experience.

Immediate Pain and Discomfort

After the surgery, which lasted about 15 minutes, Erin went home to rest. The next day, she began feeling significant pain and discomfort. At a follow-up appointment, she was told that the pain was normal and part of the immediate recovery phase. They assured her she would be fine to return to work by Monday. However, the pain worsened over the week and lasted for months.

Long-Term Consequences

Erin developed extreme light sensitivity, making it difficult to go outside or look at screens. This condition persisted for several months. She was constantly in pain. During this time, she and her partner had to block out light from their home, and Erin wore dark sunglasses even indoors.

Struggles with Light Sensitivity

The light sensitivity eventually improved, but the pain did not. Erin took a month off work as she struggled to function normally. She reached out to the clinic multiple times, but their responses did little to alleviate her distress.

Chronic Pain Management

Erin was prescribed a lot of pain medication, and her GP and other specialists worked hard to help her manage the pain. Despite their efforts, she still experiences pain daily, even five years later. Some days are more manageable than others, but the unpredictability of the pain can make life challenging.

Considering Legal Action

Erin considered legal action but decided against it due to the potential costs. Her interactions with the surgeon’s team were uncomfortable, and she eventually cut off contact, requesting that any necessary information be communicated through her GP.

Filing a Formal Complaint

She filed a formal complaint with the health department, which was still being investigated when the surgeon unfortunately passed away from COVID-19. This added a twist to her story, but the investigation led to changes in the clinic’s policies regarding patient information on the risks of corneal neuralgia.

Reflections and Advocacy

Overall, Erin’s journey has been a roller coaster. She no longer shares this story often, partly because of the surgeon’s passing. However, she feels it’s important for others to be fully informed before undergoing such procedures. Her experience highlights the need for thorough communication and informed consent in healthcare.

Erin’s Current Life

Erin Orchard is a 36-year-old student from Sydney, Australia, currently studying for her Master of Occupational Therapy. Alongside her studies, she is deeply involved in animal welfare as the Cat Coordinator at Maggie’s Rescue. She also provides pet-sitting services for dogs and cats in her local area.

Conclusion

Erin’s experience serves as a cautionary tale for anyone considering laser eye surgery. While the promise of perfect vision without glasses or contacts is tempting, it’s crucial to understand all potential risks and to advocate for thorough informed consent. Her story reminds us of the importance of being fully aware of the possible consequences before making significant medical decisions.

FAQs

1. What are the common risks of laser eye surgery?

Laser eye surgery can have several risks, including dry eyes, glare, halos, under-corrections, over-corrections, and in rare cases, more severe complications like corneal neuralgia.

2. What is corneal neuralgia?

Corneal neuralgia is a condition where the nerves in the cornea are damaged, causing chronic pain. This risk was not discussed with Erin before her surgery.

3. What is the difference between LASIK and PRK?

LASIK involves creating a flap in the cornea, while PRK removes the outer layer of the cornea entirely. PRK has a longer recovery time but is often recommended for patients with thinner corneas.

4. How long does recovery from laser eye surgery typically take?

Recovery time can vary, but most people return to normal activities within a few days to a week. However, full visual stabilization can take several months.

5. What should patients ask their surgeons before laser eye surgery?

Patients should ask about all potential risks, the surgeon’s experience, alternative treatments, and the detailed recovery process. It’s essential to ensure all concerns are addressed before proceeding.


References

Source Article

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Study Shows Teenagers Can Pass Mental Health Disorders to Each Other

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Study Shows Teenagers Can Pass Mental Health Disorders to Each Other

A groundbreaking study published in the journal JAMA Psychiatry reveals that mental disorders can spread among teenagers through their social networks. The research, conducted by a team from the University of Helsinki, highlights a significant association between having friends with mental disorders and the likelihood of developing similar conditions.

The Study and Its Findings

Research Background

The study analyzed data from over 710,000 Finnish students across 860 high schools. The primary objective was to determine if there was a correlation between having friends diagnosed with mental disorders and the risk of developing such disorders.

Key Findings

  • Initial Diagnosis and Follow-Up: By the ninth grade, about 47,000 students had been diagnosed with some form of mental disorder. During a follow-up period, an additional 167,000 students (25% of the total) received a diagnosis.
  • Risk Factors: The presence of more than one diagnosed classmate increased the overall risk of developing a mental disorder by 5%. Notably, the risk surged to 9% with one diagnosed classmate and 18% with multiple diagnosed classmates during the first year of follow-up.
  • Disorder Types: The most significant risks were associated with mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders.

Implications of the Findings

The researchers concluded that mental disorders might be transmitted within adolescent peer networks. This discovery underscores the importance of considering peer influences in mental health interventions.

Mechanisms of Transmission

Normalization of Mental Disorders

One proposed mechanism is the normalization of mental health issues within peer groups. Increased awareness and acceptance of mental health diagnoses can lead to a higher likelihood of seeking help and receiving a diagnosis.

Interpersonal Contagion

For certain disorders, such as depression, the study suggests the possibility of direct interpersonal contagion. Peer influence is particularly significant among teenagers, making them vulnerable to conditions like eating disorders through social interactions.

Societal and Cultural Influences

Michaela James, a mental health researcher at Swansea University, emphasizes that the rise in mental health diagnoses is not solely due to peer influence. She points to broader societal and cultural issues, such as declining physical health, unhealthy eating habits, and increased emotional and behavioral difficulties among young people.

Broader Context and Future Directions

The Role of the Pandemic

James highlights that the COVID-19 pandemic and its restrictions may have exacerbated mental health issues. The study’s findings suggest that pre-existing, undiagnosed disorders might become more apparent in social networks, rather than mental health issues spreading like a contagion.

Need for Comprehensive Interventions

The researchers advocate for prevention and intervention measures that consider peer influences on mental health. They stress the importance of addressing physical skills, promoting confidence and autonomy in physical activities, and enhancing overall well-being and socialization.

Further Research

While the study establishes a clear association, the exact mechanisms driving this phenomenon remain unclear. Further research is needed to explore how and why mental disorders spread within social networks and to develop effective interventions.

Conclusion

The study from the University of Helsinki provides crucial insights into the spread of mental disorders among teenagers. Understanding the role of peer networks in mental health can inform more effective prevention and intervention strategies, ultimately reducing the burden of mental disorders in society.


FAQs

1. How do mental disorders spread among teenagers?

Mental disorders can spread through social networks among teenagers. This may occur through normalization of mental health issues, direct interpersonal contagion, or broader societal and cultural influences.

2. What types of mental disorders are most likely to spread among teens?

The study found that mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders were most likely to spread among teens through their social networks.

3. What role does the COVID-19 pandemic play in the spread of mental disorders among teenagers?

The pandemic and its accompanying restrictions may have exacerbated mental health issues among teenagers, making pre-existing, undiagnosed disorders more apparent within social networks.

4. What can be done to prevent the spread of mental disorders among teenagers?

Effective prevention and intervention measures should consider peer influences on mental health. Promoting physical activities, confidence, autonomy, and overall well-being are crucial.

5. What further research is needed to understand the spread of mental disorders among teenagers?

Further research is required to clarify the mechanisms that explain the association between peer networks and mental health disorders and to develop targeted interventions.


References

  • University of Helsinki Study on Mental Disorders and Peer Influence
  • Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Psychiatry
  • Michaela James’ comments on mental health trends
  • Newsweek article on the impact of societal changes on mental health

News Source: Newsweek Article on Mental Disorders in Teenagers

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How Often Do I Need to Get the Yellow Fever Vaccine?

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How Often Do I Need to Get the Yellow Fever Vaccine?

Yellow fever is a serious viral infection spread by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions. If you’re planning to travel to areas where yellow fever is prevalent, it’s crucial to understand the vaccination requirements and schedules.

In this comprehensive guide, we will explore how often you need to get the yellow fever vaccine, what the vaccine entails, and other essential information to keep you safe and informed.

Understanding Yellow Fever

Yellow fever is caused by a virus transmitted by the Aedes and Haemagogus species of mosquitoes. Symptoms can range from mild fever and headache to severe liver disease with bleeding and jaundice. The yellow fever vaccine is highly effective in preventing this disease.

What Is the Yellow Fever Vaccine?

The yellow fever vaccine is a live-attenuated vaccine, which means it contains a weakened form of the virus that stimulates the immune system to build protection without causing the disease.

Why Is the Vaccine Important?

The yellow fever vaccine is essential for preventing infection in areas where the virus is endemic. Many countries require proof of vaccination for travelers arriving from regions with yellow fever.

Vaccination Schedule

Initial Dose

The initial dose of the yellow fever vaccine is typically given at least 10 days before travel to an endemic area. This single dose provides lifelong protection for most individuals.

Booster Dose

Historically, a booster dose was recommended every 10 years for those at continued risk. However, recent studies have shown that a single dose of the vaccine provides lifelong immunity for most people.

Exceptions Requiring Boosters

  • Children vaccinated before age 2: They may need a booster dose if they continue to live or travel to endemic areas.
  • Pregnant women: Vaccination during pregnancy is generally avoided unless the risk of yellow fever is high. In such cases, the woman might need a booster dose later.
  • Individuals with weakened immune systems: Those with conditions that suppress the immune system might require additional doses.

Who Should Get Vaccinated?

Travelers to Endemic Areas

Anyone traveling to or living in areas where yellow fever is endemic should receive the vaccine.

Lab Workers

Individuals who work with the yellow fever virus in laboratories should be vaccinated.

Exemptions

  • Infants under 9 months: Not routinely recommended due to the risk of serious adverse reactions.
  • People with severe egg allergies: The vaccine is cultured in eggs and may cause reactions.
  • Individuals with weakened immune systems: This includes those undergoing chemotherapy or with conditions like HIV.

Side Effects and Safety

Common Side Effects

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches
  • Soreness at the injection site

Rare but Serious Side Effects

  • Severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis)
  • Neurological conditions like encephalitis
  • Organ system failure (yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease)

Proof of Vaccination

International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP)

This is an official document that proves you have been vaccinated against yellow fever. It’s required for entry into some countries and should be carried with you when traveling.

Vaccination Documentation

Ensure your vaccination records are up to date and include the date of vaccination and the administering healthcare provider’s information.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. How Long Before Travel Should I Get Vaccinated?

You should get vaccinated at least 10 days before your trip. This allows enough time for the vaccine to provide protection.

2. Is One Dose Enough for Life?

For most people, a single dose provides lifelong immunity. However, certain individuals may require booster doses.

3. Can I Get the Vaccine If I Am Pregnant?

Pregnant women should avoid the vaccine unless the risk of yellow fever is high. Consult with your healthcare provider for personalized advice.

4. What Should I Do If I Lose My Vaccination Certificate?

If you lose your ICVP, contact the healthcare provider or clinic where you received the vaccine for a replacement.

5. Are There Any Travel Restrictions Related to Yellow Fever?

Yes, many countries require proof of vaccination for travelers coming from areas with yellow fever. Check the specific requirements of your destination.

6. What If I Have a Severe Allergy to Eggs?

If you have a severe egg allergy, you should not receive the yellow fever vaccine. Consult with your healthcare provider for alternative options.

7. Can Children Receive the Yellow Fever Vaccine?

Children aged 9 months and older can receive the vaccine. Those under 9 months should not be vaccinated unless they are traveling to high-risk areas.

8. Can I Get Yellow Fever from the Vaccine?

No, the vaccine contains a live-attenuated virus that is not capable of causing the disease in healthy individuals.

9. What Should I Do If I Experience Side Effects?

If you experience mild side effects, such as fever or soreness, they should resolve on their own. For severe reactions, seek medical attention immediately.

10. Are There Alternative Vaccines Available?

Currently, there is no alternative to the yellow fever vaccine. Preventative measures include avoiding mosquito bites through the use of repellents and protective clothing.

11. How Does Yellow Fever Compare to Other Mosquito-Borne Diseases?

Yellow fever is more severe than diseases like dengue or Zika, with higher fatality rates and the potential for serious complications.

12. Can I Travel Without the Vaccine?

Traveling without the vaccine to endemic areas is not recommended and may be restricted by certain countries. Always check the vaccination requirements for your destination.

13. Is the Vaccine Covered by Insurance?

Many insurance plans cover the cost of the yellow fever vaccine. Check with your provider for details.

14. Can I Receive Other Vaccines at the Same Time?

Yes, the yellow fever vaccine can be administered simultaneously with other vaccines, but always consult with your healthcare provider for the best schedule.

Conclusion

Getting vaccinated against yellow fever is a crucial step in protecting yourself from a potentially deadly disease, especially if you are traveling to areas where the virus is endemic. While a single dose of the vaccine provides lifelong protection for most people, certain individuals may need booster doses under specific circumstances.

Always consult with your healthcare provider to ensure you are up to date with your vaccinations and understand the requirements for your travel destinations.

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