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What Causes Sudden Breathlessness?



causes sudden breathlessness

Last Updated on March 23, 2023 by Nurse Vicky

What Causes  Sudden Breathlessness?

It can be frightening to experience sudden breathlessness. Fortunately, doctors are well-trained in identifying and treating this condition. A physician may administer extra oxygen to the patient. The following conditions are common causes of sudden breathlessness.

You may experience difficulty breathing at any time. But what causes difficulty breathing? Are you experiencing it only occasionally or on a regular basis? Listed below are some causes, symptoms, and treatments. Learn more about stress and how to deal with it.

Symptoms of Sudden Breathlessness


sudden breathlessness

Symptoms of difficulty breathing can range from mild to severe and can affect your ability to do everyday activities. It can even make it difficult to talk or do other activities. You may even have trouble breathing at rest.

Listed below are some possible causes of difficulty breathing and how to treat them. Keeping a journal can help you track your symptoms. Keep in mind that your healthcare provider may recommend tests to determine the exact cause of your difficulty breathing.

Often, symptoms of difficulty breathing can be temporary and be caused by things like a cold or excessive exercise. It’s also possible to develop breathing problems after hiking at high altitudes.

The good news is that your symptoms will subside once you’ve cleared your cold or returned to a lower altitude. Listening to soothing music or talking to a close friend may help you relax and reset your focus.

Alternatively, you may want to consider seeing a medical professional, who will assess your condition and determine whether you have a condition such as COPD.

Causes of Sudden Breathlessness


sudden breathlessness

If you experience shortness of breath, you are most likely suffering from a condition called difficulty in breathing. This problem is common in adults, but it can also be a symptom of a serious medical condition.

Fortunately, many of these conditions are easily treated by changing the position of your body. Listed below are some causes of difficulty in breathing. Knowing what they are and what they mean can help you identify the source of your difficulty.

Acute allergy is a common cause of difficulty in breathing. This ailment causes the body’s mucous membranes and fatty tissues to swell. When the larynx swells, heavy breathing results.

This is accompanied by coughing and stridor. Asthma and other diseases that affect the chest wall can also cause difficulty in breathing. If you experience recurrent difficulty in breathing with a wheeze, it is most likely that you have a condition like asthma or COPD.

Treatments for Sudden Breathlessness


 treatment sudden breathlessness?

The treatment of difficulty in breathing starts with a diagnosis. Your healthcare team will ask questions about your symptoms and medications to determine whether there is something else that could be causing your difficulty.

The healthcare provider may also order additional tests, including an electrocardiogram or CT scan. These tests will help the healthcare team determine whether a particular heart problem is to blame for the difficulty in breathing.

Other tests may include an electrocardiogram or a pulmonary function test, which measures the amount of oxygen in your blood and how well your lungs function. If the symptoms are mild, your doctor may not order a specific test to determine the cause of your problem.

However, if your symptoms persist for over a few days, the first step to taking care of your problem is to seek medical attention.

Symptoms of difficulty in breathing include shortness of breath, chest tightness, and wheezing. The symptoms of difficulty in breathing may be associated with other medical conditions such as lung disease, poor fitness, or allergies.

The symptoms of difficulty breathing may occur suddenly, when you least expect it, or you may experience them frequently throughout the day. You may also experience symptoms like chest pain, dizziness, coughing, and swelling of the ankles and feet.




The most common symptoms of stress include difficulty breathing. It can creep up on you without you even realizing it. It may feel like a normal part of your life, or something that happens regularly.

It may not seem like much, but it can really take a toll on your health, relationships, productivity, and overall well-being. There are several ways to manage stress, so you can avoid the physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms of stress.

Chronic stress is associated with a number of health problems, including high blood pressure, digestive disorders, and mood swings. It can affect sleep, eating habits, and exercise.

Research has even linked stress to gastrointestinal problems, such as stomach ulcers. Even heart problems and gastrointestinal issues have been linked to chronic stress.

Although many people experience some of these symptoms, stress is different for every individual. To diagnose your stress, keep a stress diary.

Lung disease


lung disease

People who experience difficulty in breathing may have one of two main types of lung disease, obstructive or restrictive. Obstructive lung disease restricts the airways, which limits the amount of oxygen that the body can get from the air.

Patients suffering from this type of disease often increase their breathing rate to compensate for their reduced airflow. Lung diseases in this category include asthma, COPD, emphysema, and bronchiectasis.

Other types of lung disease include a combination of both obstructive and restrictive lung disease. Although some causes of difficulty in breathing are entirely normal, many people with lung disorders experience this problem when they exercise.

Physical activity increases the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, which activates the respiratory center in the brain.

If the heart and lungs are not functioning properly, exercise can increase the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide you breathe. Even when you’re at rest, dyspnea can be very unpleasant.



Additionally, many ask

How can you tell whether your chest tightness is something more serious?


If you have shortness of breath that is accompanied by chest pain, fainting, nausea, a bluish tinge to your lips or nails, or a change in mental alertness, you should seek emergency medical care as soon as possible because these symptoms may indicate that you are having a heart attack or a pulmonary embolism.

What are the most typical reasons for experiencing shortness of breath?

The majority of occurrences of shortness of breath are caused by disorders affecting either the heart or the lungs. Problems with any of these processes can hinder your ability to take deep breaths since they both involve your heart and lungs. Your lungs are responsible for eliminating carbon dioxide from your blood, while your heart delivers oxygen to your tissues.

How can you tell if your chest pain and shortness of breath are related to your heart?

The most common sign of heart failure is uncomfortable shortness of breath. It is an uncomfortable sensation that could make you feel as though you are being suffocated. Initially, shortness of breath is associated with physical activity; but, in extreme situations, it may worsen over time and eventually occur even when the patient is at rest.

Which of these three types of shortness of breath are you experiencing?

They are as follows: Orthopnea is characterized by a sensation of being suffocated when lying down…
If you suffer from a condition known as paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, you may experience episodes of extreme shortness of breath that cause you to awaken in the middle of the night.
When you lie on your back in a particular position, you may experience a form of dyspnea called trepopnea.

What kinds of cardiac conditions can bring on shortness of breath?

Breathlessness is a symptom that can be brought on by a variety of heart disorders, including angina, heart attack, heart failure, and certain irregular heart rhythms like atrial fibrillation. These disorders can bring on shortness of breath for a variety of different reasons.

Is it possible that elevated blood pressure could be the cause of shortness of breath?

Hypertension of the Lungs (Pulmonary) (PH) Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by an elevation in blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries, which are responsible for transporting oxygen-depleted blood from the heart to the lungs. Experiencing shortness of breath while going about your normal activities is the first sign of the condition.

Can having a stroke make it difficult to breathe?

After a stroke, dyspnea is a significant symptom that has been shown to be connected with activity constraints and limitations in community engagement.

Is it possible for a clogged artery to bring on the shortness of breath?

Coronary artery disease (CAD) occurs when the coronary arteries have difficulty supplying the heart with sufficient blood, oxygen, and nutrients. Cholesterol deposits, or plaques, are virtually always to blame. These buildups cause your arteries to become narrower, which reduces the amount of blood that can flow to your heart. This can result in discomfort in the chest, shortness of breath, and even a heart attack. 25 May 2022

What kinds of diagnostic procedures are there for shortness of breath?

Your doctor will do a physical assessment on you and listen to your heart and lungs before deciding whether or not to schedule any more testing. The majority of the time, these will consist of blood tests, imaging tests like a chest X-ray or CT scan, lung function tests, or echocardiograms. 23 Feb 2021





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I Regret My Laser Eye Surgery for My Wedding—Here’s What I Wish I Knew



regret my laser eye surgery for my wedding

I Regret My Laser Eye Surgery for My Wedding—Here’s What I Wish I Knew

Laser eye surgery is often touted as a miracle solution for those tired of glasses and contact lenses. But what happens when this seemingly perfect procedure goes wrong? This is the story of Erin Orchard, who underwent laser eye surgery to make her wedding day perfect, only to face unexpected and prolonged consequences. Her journey underscores the importance of informed consent and thorough communication in healthcare.

Deciding on Laser Eye Surgery

In 2019, at the age of 31, Erin Orchard decided to undergo eye surgery. The reasoning behind this decision was deeply personal. She was engaged and struggling with contact lenses for her upcoming wedding, just a few months away. While it may seem like a minor inconvenience, it was significant to her at the time.

Recommendations and Evaluation

Erin’s mother and several friends had undergone laser eye surgery and recommended it. The allure of being free from glasses or contacts on her wedding day, especially given her active lifestyle and frequent gym visits, was compelling.

She made an appointment to see if she was a candidate for the surgery. After a thorough evaluation, she was confirmed as a perfect candidate. Erin spent roughly a month weighing the pros and cons before deciding to proceed.

The Assurance of Safety

The surgeon assured Erin that the procedure was extremely safe, calling it one of the safest surgeries in the world. He spent considerable time convincing her of its safety, which was crucial as she was quite anxious.

Potential Risks Mentioned

The surgeon highlighted that he had treated professional athletes who quickly returned to their sports after surgery. He mentioned potential downsides, like mild dry eye and the possibility of needing glasses again in the future. However, the risk of corneal neuralgia was not discussed, nor was it included on the consent form.

The Day of the Surgery

On the day of the surgery, Erin was very anxious. The thought of something going inside her eye was daunting. Her incredibly supportive partner accompanied her.

Change of Procedure

Before the surgery, the medical team gave her Valium to help calm her nerves. Initially, Erin was scheduled for LASIK (Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis), but due to her anxiety, they switched to PRK (Photorefractive Keratectomy) because she couldn’t keep the suction cup for LASIK steady.

Post-Surgery Challenges

Reflecting on that day, Erin wishes the medical team had recognized her anxiety and allowed her more time to reconsider. If they had, she might have opted out of the surgery. Informed consent is something she now strongly advocates for, especially after her experience.

Immediate Pain and Discomfort

After the surgery, which lasted about 15 minutes, Erin went home to rest. The next day, she began feeling significant pain and discomfort. At a follow-up appointment, she was told that the pain was normal and part of the immediate recovery phase. They assured her she would be fine to return to work by Monday. However, the pain worsened over the week and lasted for months.

Long-Term Consequences

Erin developed extreme light sensitivity, making it difficult to go outside or look at screens. This condition persisted for several months. She was constantly in pain. During this time, she and her partner had to block out light from their home, and Erin wore dark sunglasses even indoors.

Struggles with Light Sensitivity

The light sensitivity eventually improved, but the pain did not. Erin took a month off work as she struggled to function normally. She reached out to the clinic multiple times, but their responses did little to alleviate her distress.

Chronic Pain Management

Erin was prescribed a lot of pain medication, and her GP and other specialists worked hard to help her manage the pain. Despite their efforts, she still experiences pain daily, even five years later. Some days are more manageable than others, but the unpredictability of the pain can make life challenging.

Considering Legal Action

Erin considered legal action but decided against it due to the potential costs. Her interactions with the surgeon’s team were uncomfortable, and she eventually cut off contact, requesting that any necessary information be communicated through her GP.

Filing a Formal Complaint

She filed a formal complaint with the health department, which was still being investigated when the surgeon unfortunately passed away from COVID-19. This added a twist to her story, but the investigation led to changes in the clinic’s policies regarding patient information on the risks of corneal neuralgia.

Reflections and Advocacy

Overall, Erin’s journey has been a roller coaster. She no longer shares this story often, partly because of the surgeon’s passing. However, she feels it’s important for others to be fully informed before undergoing such procedures. Her experience highlights the need for thorough communication and informed consent in healthcare.

Erin’s Current Life

Erin Orchard is a 36-year-old student from Sydney, Australia, currently studying for her Master of Occupational Therapy. Alongside her studies, she is deeply involved in animal welfare as the Cat Coordinator at Maggie’s Rescue. She also provides pet-sitting services for dogs and cats in her local area.


Erin’s experience serves as a cautionary tale for anyone considering laser eye surgery. While the promise of perfect vision without glasses or contacts is tempting, it’s crucial to understand all potential risks and to advocate for thorough informed consent. Her story reminds us of the importance of being fully aware of the possible consequences before making significant medical decisions.


1. What are the common risks of laser eye surgery?

Laser eye surgery can have several risks, including dry eyes, glare, halos, under-corrections, over-corrections, and in rare cases, more severe complications like corneal neuralgia.

2. What is corneal neuralgia?

Corneal neuralgia is a condition where the nerves in the cornea are damaged, causing chronic pain. This risk was not discussed with Erin before her surgery.

3. What is the difference between LASIK and PRK?

LASIK involves creating a flap in the cornea, while PRK removes the outer layer of the cornea entirely. PRK has a longer recovery time but is often recommended for patients with thinner corneas.

4. How long does recovery from laser eye surgery typically take?

Recovery time can vary, but most people return to normal activities within a few days to a week. However, full visual stabilization can take several months.

5. What should patients ask their surgeons before laser eye surgery?

Patients should ask about all potential risks, the surgeon’s experience, alternative treatments, and the detailed recovery process. It’s essential to ensure all concerns are addressed before proceeding.


Source Article

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Study Shows Teenagers Can Pass Mental Health Disorders to Each Other



mental disorders spread between teenagers

Study Shows Teenagers Can Pass Mental Health Disorders to Each Other

A groundbreaking study published in the journal JAMA Psychiatry reveals that mental disorders can spread among teenagers through their social networks. The research, conducted by a team from the University of Helsinki, highlights a significant association between having friends with mental disorders and the likelihood of developing similar conditions.

The Study and Its Findings

Research Background

The study analyzed data from over 710,000 Finnish students across 860 high schools. The primary objective was to determine if there was a correlation between having friends diagnosed with mental disorders and the risk of developing such disorders.

Key Findings

  • Initial Diagnosis and Follow-Up: By the ninth grade, about 47,000 students had been diagnosed with some form of mental disorder. During a follow-up period, an additional 167,000 students (25% of the total) received a diagnosis.
  • Risk Factors: The presence of more than one diagnosed classmate increased the overall risk of developing a mental disorder by 5%. Notably, the risk surged to 9% with one diagnosed classmate and 18% with multiple diagnosed classmates during the first year of follow-up.
  • Disorder Types: The most significant risks were associated with mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders.

Implications of the Findings

The researchers concluded that mental disorders might be transmitted within adolescent peer networks. This discovery underscores the importance of considering peer influences in mental health interventions.

Mechanisms of Transmission

Normalization of Mental Disorders

One proposed mechanism is the normalization of mental health issues within peer groups. Increased awareness and acceptance of mental health diagnoses can lead to a higher likelihood of seeking help and receiving a diagnosis.

Interpersonal Contagion

For certain disorders, such as depression, the study suggests the possibility of direct interpersonal contagion. Peer influence is particularly significant among teenagers, making them vulnerable to conditions like eating disorders through social interactions.

Societal and Cultural Influences

Michaela James, a mental health researcher at Swansea University, emphasizes that the rise in mental health diagnoses is not solely due to peer influence. She points to broader societal and cultural issues, such as declining physical health, unhealthy eating habits, and increased emotional and behavioral difficulties among young people.

Broader Context and Future Directions

The Role of the Pandemic

James highlights that the COVID-19 pandemic and its restrictions may have exacerbated mental health issues. The study’s findings suggest that pre-existing, undiagnosed disorders might become more apparent in social networks, rather than mental health issues spreading like a contagion.

Need for Comprehensive Interventions

The researchers advocate for prevention and intervention measures that consider peer influences on mental health. They stress the importance of addressing physical skills, promoting confidence and autonomy in physical activities, and enhancing overall well-being and socialization.

Further Research

While the study establishes a clear association, the exact mechanisms driving this phenomenon remain unclear. Further research is needed to explore how and why mental disorders spread within social networks and to develop effective interventions.


The study from the University of Helsinki provides crucial insights into the spread of mental disorders among teenagers. Understanding the role of peer networks in mental health can inform more effective prevention and intervention strategies, ultimately reducing the burden of mental disorders in society.


1. How do mental disorders spread among teenagers?

Mental disorders can spread through social networks among teenagers. This may occur through normalization of mental health issues, direct interpersonal contagion, or broader societal and cultural influences.

2. What types of mental disorders are most likely to spread among teens?

The study found that mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders were most likely to spread among teens through their social networks.

3. What role does the COVID-19 pandemic play in the spread of mental disorders among teenagers?

The pandemic and its accompanying restrictions may have exacerbated mental health issues among teenagers, making pre-existing, undiagnosed disorders more apparent within social networks.

4. What can be done to prevent the spread of mental disorders among teenagers?

Effective prevention and intervention measures should consider peer influences on mental health. Promoting physical activities, confidence, autonomy, and overall well-being are crucial.

5. What further research is needed to understand the spread of mental disorders among teenagers?

Further research is required to clarify the mechanisms that explain the association between peer networks and mental health disorders and to develop targeted interventions.


  • University of Helsinki Study on Mental Disorders and Peer Influence
  • Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Psychiatry
  • Michaela James’ comments on mental health trends
  • Newsweek article on the impact of societal changes on mental health

News Source: Newsweek Article on Mental Disorders in Teenagers

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How Often Do I Need to Get the Yellow Fever Vaccine?



need to get the yellow fever vaccine

How Often Do I Need to Get the Yellow Fever Vaccine?

Yellow fever is a serious viral infection spread by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions. If you’re planning to travel to areas where yellow fever is prevalent, it’s crucial to understand the vaccination requirements and schedules.

In this comprehensive guide, we will explore how often you need to get the yellow fever vaccine, what the vaccine entails, and other essential information to keep you safe and informed.

Understanding Yellow Fever

Yellow fever is caused by a virus transmitted by the Aedes and Haemagogus species of mosquitoes. Symptoms can range from mild fever and headache to severe liver disease with bleeding and jaundice. The yellow fever vaccine is highly effective in preventing this disease.

What Is the Yellow Fever Vaccine?

The yellow fever vaccine is a live-attenuated vaccine, which means it contains a weakened form of the virus that stimulates the immune system to build protection without causing the disease.

Why Is the Vaccine Important?

The yellow fever vaccine is essential for preventing infection in areas where the virus is endemic. Many countries require proof of vaccination for travelers arriving from regions with yellow fever.

Vaccination Schedule

Initial Dose

The initial dose of the yellow fever vaccine is typically given at least 10 days before travel to an endemic area. This single dose provides lifelong protection for most individuals.

Booster Dose

Historically, a booster dose was recommended every 10 years for those at continued risk. However, recent studies have shown that a single dose of the vaccine provides lifelong immunity for most people.

Exceptions Requiring Boosters

  • Children vaccinated before age 2: They may need a booster dose if they continue to live or travel to endemic areas.
  • Pregnant women: Vaccination during pregnancy is generally avoided unless the risk of yellow fever is high. In such cases, the woman might need a booster dose later.
  • Individuals with weakened immune systems: Those with conditions that suppress the immune system might require additional doses.

Who Should Get Vaccinated?

Travelers to Endemic Areas

Anyone traveling to or living in areas where yellow fever is endemic should receive the vaccine.

Lab Workers

Individuals who work with the yellow fever virus in laboratories should be vaccinated.


  • Infants under 9 months: Not routinely recommended due to the risk of serious adverse reactions.
  • People with severe egg allergies: The vaccine is cultured in eggs and may cause reactions.
  • Individuals with weakened immune systems: This includes those undergoing chemotherapy or with conditions like HIV.

Side Effects and Safety

Common Side Effects

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches
  • Soreness at the injection site

Rare but Serious Side Effects

  • Severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis)
  • Neurological conditions like encephalitis
  • Organ system failure (yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease)

Proof of Vaccination

International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP)

This is an official document that proves you have been vaccinated against yellow fever. It’s required for entry into some countries and should be carried with you when traveling.

Vaccination Documentation

Ensure your vaccination records are up to date and include the date of vaccination and the administering healthcare provider’s information.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. How Long Before Travel Should I Get Vaccinated?

You should get vaccinated at least 10 days before your trip. This allows enough time for the vaccine to provide protection.

2. Is One Dose Enough for Life?

For most people, a single dose provides lifelong immunity. However, certain individuals may require booster doses.

3. Can I Get the Vaccine If I Am Pregnant?

Pregnant women should avoid the vaccine unless the risk of yellow fever is high. Consult with your healthcare provider for personalized advice.

4. What Should I Do If I Lose My Vaccination Certificate?

If you lose your ICVP, contact the healthcare provider or clinic where you received the vaccine for a replacement.

5. Are There Any Travel Restrictions Related to Yellow Fever?

Yes, many countries require proof of vaccination for travelers coming from areas with yellow fever. Check the specific requirements of your destination.

6. What If I Have a Severe Allergy to Eggs?

If you have a severe egg allergy, you should not receive the yellow fever vaccine. Consult with your healthcare provider for alternative options.

7. Can Children Receive the Yellow Fever Vaccine?

Children aged 9 months and older can receive the vaccine. Those under 9 months should not be vaccinated unless they are traveling to high-risk areas.

8. Can I Get Yellow Fever from the Vaccine?

No, the vaccine contains a live-attenuated virus that is not capable of causing the disease in healthy individuals.

9. What Should I Do If I Experience Side Effects?

If you experience mild side effects, such as fever or soreness, they should resolve on their own. For severe reactions, seek medical attention immediately.

10. Are There Alternative Vaccines Available?

Currently, there is no alternative to the yellow fever vaccine. Preventative measures include avoiding mosquito bites through the use of repellents and protective clothing.

11. How Does Yellow Fever Compare to Other Mosquito-Borne Diseases?

Yellow fever is more severe than diseases like dengue or Zika, with higher fatality rates and the potential for serious complications.

12. Can I Travel Without the Vaccine?

Traveling without the vaccine to endemic areas is not recommended and may be restricted by certain countries. Always check the vaccination requirements for your destination.

13. Is the Vaccine Covered by Insurance?

Many insurance plans cover the cost of the yellow fever vaccine. Check with your provider for details.

14. Can I Receive Other Vaccines at the Same Time?

Yes, the yellow fever vaccine can be administered simultaneously with other vaccines, but always consult with your healthcare provider for the best schedule.


Getting vaccinated against yellow fever is a crucial step in protecting yourself from a potentially deadly disease, especially if you are traveling to areas where the virus is endemic. While a single dose of the vaccine provides lifelong protection for most people, certain individuals may need booster doses under specific circumstances.

Always consult with your healthcare provider to ensure you are up to date with your vaccinations and understand the requirements for your travel destinations.

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