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Typhoid Fever: What are the causes, Cure, Symptoms, How to Prevent It

Last Updated on March 11, 2023 by Nurse Vicky

What is Typhoid Fever: Causes, Cure, Symptoms, How to Prevent It


Typhoid fever, also known as Typhoid, is caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi, which is spread through the air. As a result, food poisoning occurs.

The virus spreads by the consumption of contaminated food and drinking water. You can also contract the disease if you come into close contact with someone who is sick with typhoid fever. Poor sanitation is also a contributing factor to this potentially fatal disease.

The majority of cases of this disease are found in underdeveloped countries. However, industrialized nations such as the United States have also reported severe cases.

According to current research, over 21 million cases of enteric fever occur each year throughout the world. Consequently, when traveling to locations where typhoid fever is prevalent, you must exercise extreme caution.


More Information about Typhoid


The country with the largest number of typhoid cases is India. The number of reported instances has, on the other hand, declined in recent years.

During the rainy season, typhoid fever is very prevalent. Polluted water is one of the most significant factors contributing to the spread of this water-borne disease. Children are in greater danger than adults. However, their symptoms are less severe than those experienced by adults.

more information about typhoid

Traveling to dangerous regions such as the Middle East, Europe, and South and Central America is another significant risk factor. Extremely uncommon occurrences of severe typhoid illness may result in death.


Various types of typhoid


Salmonella can be divided into two categories:

  • Bacterial strains such as Typhoidal Salmonella are present.
  • Salmonella typhi, and Paratyphi A, B, and C are among the bacteria that cause typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever, respectively.

Non-typhoidal Salmonella is the type of Salmonella that includes all other Salmonella strains.

The signs and symptoms of typhoid fever are as follows:


It is typical to have a loss of appetite, persistent weakness, headaches, and physical pain. Constipation, diarrhea, and vomiting begin to appear gradually after exposure to the sun. The following are some of the most prevalent symptoms of enteric fever:


· Fatigue

· High fever

· Diarrhoea

· Nausea

· Delirium

· Sore throat

· Loss of appetite

· Headache

· Rashes

· Abdominal ailments

Many times, people are infected with the bacteria but do not exhibit any of the symptoms. The symptoms appear gradually and frequently appear within 1-3 weeks of the start of the illness. Some people are carriers of the germs but do not become ill as a result. They are asymptomatic carriers, which means they do not exhibit any symptoms or indicators.

If you notice any of these symptoms, see your doctor as soon as possible.


In which region of the body does typhoid fever manifest itself?


Typhoid is a bacterial infection that affects the stomach. It has a wide range of effects on the body’s organs, rather than simply one or two.

Once the bacteria have entered the bloodstream, they assault the gastrointestinal system, which includes the liver, spleen, and muscle tissue. The liver and spleen may also enlarge from time to time.

Bacteria can also enter the bloodstream and go to the gallbladder, lungs, and kidneys.

Fever and rashes on the body are the most well-known symptoms of Typhoid.

A high body temperature is also experienced by patients during the early stages of the disease.

The onset of enteric fever is also indicated by the appearance of light red spots on the neck and belly.


When Should You See a Doctor?


If you fear you have typhoid fever, you should consult a doctor as soon as possible. Your doctor will make an accurate diagnosis and administer appropriate treatment for your ailment. In order to avoid any issues, schedule an appointment as soon as possible after returning from a trip. If you are experiencing mild or severe symptoms, do not hesitate to contact your doctor as soon as possible.


How You Can Diagnose Typhoid Fever?


Typhoid diagnosis involves:

  • Bone marrow testing
  • Blood culture
  • Laboratory tests to check fever
  • Testing antibodies against Salmonella typhi
  • Blood, stool, and urine samples


The majority of the time, the diagnosis is clinical. However, the stool sample and blood test are the two most commonly used procedures. Inform your doctor if you have recently returned from a trip. This will assist in correctly diagnosing the condition and identifying it at the appropriate time to avoid complications. After being diagnosed with the bacteria, around 3 percent to 5 percent of patients become carriers of the bacteria.


Typhoid Fever is caused by a variety of factors.

Typhoid fever is a serious intestinal infection that affects the entire body. It can be brought on by any of the following factors:


The route of transmission is fecal-oral.


Inadequate sanitation and inadequate hygiene habits are examples of this. Water-borne diseases are the carriers of water-borne diseases in humans. Fecal contamination can also occur through the consumption of food, drinking water, or direct touch.

In underdeveloped nations where enteric fever is widespread, the majority of cases are caused by contaminated water that has been consumed. It is believed that travelers are spreading the disease through a fecal-oral pathway.

As a result, the bacterium that is responsible travels through the feces. It also remains in the urine of those who have been affected. Additionally, if you come into contact with someone who is suffering from typhoid fever, you may contract the virus.


Carriers of the typhoid virus


Some people, even after they have recovered, continue to carry the disease in their intestinal tracts or gallbladders for an extended period of time. These carriers excrete bacteria in their feces, which can spread to other people and cause sickness.


What are the Risk Factors for Contracting Typhoid Fever?

Typhoid fever is a dangerous sickness that affects millions of individuals all over the world every year, according to the World Health Organization. Children are at greater risk for developing this condition.

The following are the risk factors that raise the likelihood of contracting an infection.


  • Living situations that are unsanitary
  • Lack of proper sanitation
  • Traveling or visiting the affected areas on a regular basis
  • Coming into contact with a person who has typhoid fever
  • Touching a flying bug that is feeding on feces is not recommended.
  • We strongly encourage you to avoid the dangers listed above in order to avoid typhoid infection.
  • If you do contract an infection, however, you should consult your doctor immediately for a fast diagnosis and treatment.


Complications of Typhoid Fever include the following.

Patients who do not complete the prescribed antibiotic treatment are at risk of developing complications. One out of every ten people is exposed to such dangers. The following are the most frequently observed:

A severe concern is the splitting or perforation of the digestive system. Splitting or perforation of the digestive system: In this case, the bacteria travel to the stomach and infect the lining of the abdomen (peritoneum). Peritonitis is the medical term for this ailment.

The peritoneum does not have a built-in defense system that can combat infection. Therefore, the infection travels quickly to the bloodstream, resulting in an emergency medical situation. Failure to treat this condition in a timely manner can result in multiple organ failures and, ultimately, the death of the patient.

The only sign is severe abdominal pain that must be treated immediately. It only serves to exacerbate the situation.

Admission to the hospital is quite vital in this situation. Antibiotic injections are administered by your doctor, followed by surgery to seal the intestinal wall.

Internal bleeding is a type of problem that can occur in the digestive system as well as elsewhere. It has the potential to make you feel fatigued and ill.

Breathlessness, irregular heartbeat, pale complexion, fatigue, and vomiting blood are some of the most common symptoms experienced by people suffering from internal bleeding. In this circumstance, doctors will propose that you get a blood transfusion.

Complications of enteric fever are more common during the third week of illness.


What is the treatment for Typhoid Fever?

Consult with your doctor as soon as possible. If the results of the test are positive, your doctor will prescribe medicine to you. The majority of the time, doctors are able to cure this sickness with a course of antibacterial medications.

You will see changes in as little as 1-2 days and will be fully recovered in as little as a week.

The vaccine is currently accessible, and it has an 80 percent efficacy rating. There are, however, other considerations that influence which treatment is most effective for you. Depending on the severity of the ailment, your doctor will assist you in understanding it.

Admission to a psychiatric facility is required in severe circumstances. You will feel better after completing a proper course of antibiotic medication. Typhoid is a serious illness that can be fatal if not treated promptly.


What Precautions Should You Take to Avoid Contracting Enteric Fever?

In order to avoid contracting typhoid fever, especially while traveling, you should take the following precautionary measures:

Exercise extreme caution when it comes to your drinking and eating habits.

Before consuming anything, especially raw food, always remember to wash your hands thoroughly before eating.


  • Drinking tap water should be avoided.
  • Avoid consuming food purchased from street vendors.
  • Say no to raw foods, especially meat, poultry, and other animal products.
  • Safe, hygienic water bottles with secure seals should always be carried.
  • Always choose boiling water over tap water since it is germ-free.
  • Salads should be avoided.
  • Only pasteurized hot tea, milk, or coffee should be consumed.
  • Maintain a healthy level of hygiene. Hand sanitizer or soap should be used after using the restroom, especially after touching your face.
  • Keep your hands away from your face.


In order to receive a typhoid fever vaccine, what is the minimum age requirement?

The typhoid vaccine should not be administered to children under the age of two years old. However, live typhoid vaccine (orally administered) should not be given to a child who is younger than 6 years old.


How far in advance of a trip do you need to acquire a typhoid vaccination?

Because the protective benefits of the typhoid vaccine begin to take action seven days after immunization, it is recommended that you acquire the vaccine two weeks or, ideally, a month before you travel to ensure that the shot has enough time to do its job.

What is the shelf life of the typhoid fever vaccine?

The typhoid vaccination is an effective measure of infection prevention that is 50 percent to 80 percent effective. Having said that, no vaccine is 100 percent effective, and it is not a substitute for paying close attention to what you eat and drink during the day.

To put it another way, while the typhoid vaccine can reduce your chance of infection, you must still exercise caution and follow the prevention guidelines outlined above.

In what ways might the typhoid vaccine cause negative effects?

However, even though the vaccine is successful, there remains the possibility of certain negative effects.

The following are the most frequently reported adverse responses to typhoid vaccine:

  • Feeling of discomfort
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Muscle pain
  • Pain, swelling, and redness at the site of injection


On rare occasions, a person may also experience side effects such as:


  • Hives
  • Itchy feet and hands
  • Skin redness, particularly around the ears
  • Sudden and severe tiredness and weakness
  • Swelling of face, eyes, and inside of your nose

How many Typhoid vaccination shots do you think you’ll need?

Typhoid vaccination can be administered intravenously or orally, in the form of capsules or tablets, depending on the situation.

The inactivated typhoid vaccination shot is administered in a single dosage so that just one injection is required to provide protection.

People in Australia and Europe, on the other hand, require only three tablets, whilst Canadians and Americans require four capsules.

Australia and Europe administer tablets on days 1, 3, and 5, whereas North America administers four pills on each of days 1, 3, 5, and 7.

What is the duration of the condition?

A single dosage of injectable vaccine gives protection for 2 to 3 years, after which a booster dose is required for those who are at risk of contracting the disease.

Protective efficacy is 72 percent 1.5 years after immunization in high-risk countries or regions, but it reduces to 50 percent three years following vaccination in these areas.

Individuals traveling from non-endemic to endemic nations should have their oral typhoid vaccine series renewed every year, and people who live in high-risk areas should have their series repeated every three years, according to the CDC.

For Canadians, oral revaccination is suggested after seven years, whereas for Americans, oral revaccination is recommended after five years.



Take the necessary precautions, as outlined above, to protect yourself.


When traveling to a region where typhoid fever is widespread, use caution. Make sure you get your drugs on time and that you complete the entire treatment process in order to prevent the spread of this deadly disease.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) include the following:


Which age group has the highest occurrence of enteric fever?

Those under the age of five, newborns, and young adults are at greater risk for typhoid. Enteric fever, also known as typhoid fever, is a bacterial infection caused by Salmonella Typhi. It is typically transmitted through contaminated food or water. The incidence of enteric fever varies by age group and geographical location.

In general, children and young adults in developing countries are at the highest risk of developing an enteric fever. This is due to factors such as poor sanitation, lack of access to clean water, and overcrowding. In some areas, the disease is also more common during the rainy season when there is an increased risk of water contamination.

In developed countries with good sanitation and hygiene practices, enteric fever is less common overall. However, it may still occur in certain populations, such as travelers to areas with high rates of the disease, or individuals with compromised immune systems.

Overall, early diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics are key to managing enteric fever and preventing complications. Good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and proper food preparation, can also help to prevent the spread of the disease.


The distinction between paratyphoid fever and typhoid fever is as follows:


Enteric fever, sometimes known as typhoid, is caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi, whereas paratyphoid is caused by the bacteria Salmonella paratyphi. The symptoms and severity of both disorders, on the other hand, are nearly identical.


What is the fatality rate associated with typhoid fever?


The disease carries a 0.2 percent chance of causing death. Fortunately, with the right antibiotic treatment, typhoid fever is a relatively short-term infection that requires only 5-6 days of hospitalization at the most. The fatality rate associated with typhoid fever can vary depending on various factors such as the age and overall health of the patient, access to appropriate medical care, and the severity of the infection.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the case fatality rate for untreated typhoid fever is estimated to be around 10-30%, but with appropriate treatment, it can be reduced to less than 1%. However, in some cases, the fatality rate may still be higher, especially in developing countries where access to medical care and sanitation facilities may be limited.

It’s important to note that typhoid fever is a serious bacterial infection that requires prompt medical attention. Symptoms of typhoid fever include high fever, headache, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, and can be life-threatening if left untreated. If you suspect you may have typhoid fever, it’s important to seek medical care immediately.


Is physical activity restricted during a bout of typhoid?


Patients should remain at home and rest as much as possible until they have recovered. During a bout of typhoid, physical activity is generally restricted. Typhoid fever is a serious bacterial infection that can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, fatigue, weakness, and abdominal pain. These symptoms can be severe, and they can make it difficult for individuals to engage in physical activity.

In addition, physical activity during a bout of typhoid can potentially worsen the infection and lead to complications. Physical exertion can raise body temperature, which can exacerbate fever and make the infection more severe. It can also cause dehydration, which is a common complication of typhoid fever.

Therefore, it is generally recommended that individuals with typhoid fever rest and avoid physical activity until they have fully recovered. Once the infection has cleared, individuals can gradually resume physical activity as tolerated. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before resuming physical activity, as they can provide guidance on appropriate levels of activity based on an individual’s overall health and recovery progress.

Why does typhoid fever comes again and again?


If infected water is used to wash fruits and vegetables, it has the potential to spread. Some persons are asymptomatic carriers of typhoid, which means that they carry the bacterium but do not show any signs or symptoms of illness. Another group of people continues to contain the bacteria even after their symptoms have subsided. It is possible for the disease to reappear at any time.

Is it possible for typhoid to recur more than once?


Re-infection can also occur, albeit it is rare, and can be separated from relapse by using molecular type to determine the source of the infection. There is evidence in this case that the patient has contracted S Typhi again.

What is it about me that I get typhoid every year?


It is common to contract typhoid fever in areas with poor sanitation and a scarcity of safe drinking water. Access to safe drinking water and proper sanitation, food handler hygiene, and typhoid immunization are all effective methods of preventing typhoid illness in developing countries.

For how long can typhoid fever last in the body?


The fact that typhoid is an enteric illness means that it affects the gut and, as a result, the symptoms that one encounter are related to the digestive system.

Most commonly, the signs and symptoms of typhoid fever appear gradually over a period of 10-14 days following exposure to the bacteria that causes the illness. The disease caused by typhoid fever lasts approximately 3-4 weeks.

Is it possible for typhoid to recur after treatment?


Typhoid fever relapse occurs in some patients who have been treated for the disease, which is when symptoms reappear. The symptoms normally reappear roughly a week after the antibiotic therapy has been completed if this occurs.

Is typhoid a disease that can be healed completely?


Yes, typhoid is a serious disease, but it is treatable. Antibiotics are used to treat typhoid fever because they kill the Salmonella bacteria that cause illness. Antibiotics reduced the death rate from 20 percent to 10 percent before they were introduced. An overwhelming infection, pneumonia, intestinal hemorrhage, and intestinal perforation were the causes of death in this case.

Is it safe to consume tea while suffering from typhoid?


Drinking or producing beverages such as tea or coffee, as well as brushing your teeth, should only be done with water that has been boiled or chemically disinfected before use. Washing your face and hands is a good idea. You can also clean your hands with an alcohol-based gel if you like.


Is typhoid a factor in menstrual irregularities?


It is based on the hormone levels in your body to determine when you will get your period. When under the stress of an infection, hormones can become unbalanced, and there have been reports of delays in treatment in such circumstances.




Enteric fever is spread by contact with other people. If it is not addressed at the appropriate time, it can become severe and fatal. To avoid contracting the disease, we recommend that you exercise cleanliness and proper hygiene habits on a regular basis to maintain yourself healthy. During the healing period, the body is still weak and requires appropriate nutrients. As a result, it is critical to maintaining a regular and healthy diet when taking medicine.


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