Connect with us

Health

what  is  the name of the monkeypox virus 

Published

on

what is the name of the monkeypox virus? 

 

Upon recognition of a new monkeypox virus, the best way to communicate it is to give it a proper name.

Appropriate names minimize the risk of offending cultural groups and have minimal impact on animal welfare, trade, and tourism.

To select an appropriate name, experts in evolutionary biology and pox virology reviewed the phylogeny and nomenclature of monkeypox virus variants and discussed their characteristics and evolution.

The differences between the different variants were analyzed as well, as the consequences on public health and trade.

Symptoms

Is The Monkeypox Itching The Person?

The symptoms of the monkeypox virus are typically fever, chills, and rash. The illness can last anywhere from two to four weeks, depending on the person infected and their health.

The death rate for this virus is low in humans but can reach one in ten people in African countries.

Those at high risk include pregnant women, children, and people with underlying medical conditions or who are immunocompromised.

People who are exposed to the disease should avoid close contact with others and avoid touching their pets.

In addition to washing their personal clothing and bedding, they should also disinfect any surfaces that have been touched by the monkeypox-infected person.

Hand sanitizers containing alcohol are also recommended. Health professionals should follow the guidelines outlined on the website to prevent monkeypox.

These guidelines can be helpful for preventing monkeypox and limiting the severity of the condition.

Transmission

 

The transmission of the monkeypox virus can be prevented if health workers who are in contact with infected patients take standard precautions.

These precautions include implementing good hand hygiene and ensuring that contaminated environmental surfaces are properly disinfected.

Additionally, they should not use contaminated medical equipment and waste materials.

When a suspected case is diagnosed, public health measures should be implemented immediately.

The patient should be isolated until the diagnosis has been confirmed by laboratory testing. Monkeypox is typically self-limiting, though severe cases can be fatal.

The disease is generally less severe in the West African clade than in the Congo Basin, and the case fatality is significantly lower.

Public health investigations are ongoing in non-endemic countries, including extensive case findings and laboratory investigations.

In cases of infection, patients are generally treated with isolation and supportive care, and vaccination is offered to close contacts.

The WHO convenes experts to make recommendations for vaccination.

Vaccines

Vaccine

The World Health Organization has published guidelines for the development of vaccines against the monkeypox virus.

These guidelines are designed to reduce the risk of exposure to the monkeypox virus among humans and animals.

However, the risk of monkeypox remains low enough for widespread vaccination against the virus. Vaccines against the monkeypox virus are available in a few countries.

The WHO has encouraged countries that already have adequate vaccine supplies to share them with others.

One of these vaccines is ACAM2000, which is already over 200 million doses in stock.

It is used to protect military personnel and laboratory researchers. However, the U.S.

Centers for Disease Control do not publish data on vaccine effectiveness in humans.

Instead, they cite older studies of animal studies and clinical trials in Africa. Despite these risks, the FDA has approved two vaccines against the monkeypox virus.

Incubation period

Incubation period

The incubation period of the monkeypox virus is between 8.5 and nine days. The virus is transmitted from one person to another via contact with infected animals or the bite of an infected person.

The virus can also be transferred from human to human through materials that have been infected by the monkeypox virus.

Monkeypox is classified as a Hazard Group 3 pathogen and must be handled under sterile conditions in facilities.

Electron microscopy can be used for evaluating the virus and is not routinely used for the diagnosis of this high-risk etiological agent.

The incubation period for monkeypox virus infection varies from individual to individual.

In the case of the United States, the outbreak in 2003 allowed the estimation of the time from exposure to the onset of the illness in 29 patients.

The incubation period was shorter in persons who had previous animal bites and those who had tactile contact with infected animals.

The incubation period of the monkeypox virus is between five and thirteen days in the United States.

Virus clade

Virus clade

The Virus clade of monkeypoX is a highly infectious and contagious disease that is often acquired from contact with an infected animal. It is also often acquired through the preparation of bushmeat, which is the meat of wild animals that is raw or minimally processed.

The virus has been detected in many types of animals throughout Africa, and its primary reservoir is rodents.

Although the disease can infect humans, it is mostly transmitted by rodents.

The illness is usually self-limited, lasting between two to four weeks, although some patients may develop complications.

The case fatality rate (CFR) of monkeypox depends on the viral clade, host factors, and the route of infection.

Historically, the Congo Basin clade has had a CFR of 10%, while the West African clade has a CFR of one to three percent.

The United States experienced an outbreak in 2003, but there were no deaths.

 

FAQs

Why is this disease called ‘monkeypox’?

Answer

The disease is called monkeypox because it was first identified in colonies of monkeys kept for research in 1958. It was only later detected in humans in 1970.

Can children get monkeypox?

Answer

Children can catch monkeypox if they have close contact with someone who has symptoms.  Data from previously affected countries show that children are typically more prone to severe disease than adolescents and adults.  There have been a small number of children with monkeypox in the current outbreak

Is my risk of catching or getting serious symptoms from monkeypox higher if I have COVID-19, or if I am suffering from long-COVID?

Answer

This is a question that health professionals are currently trying to answer.  At this time, we don’t yet know whether having COVID-19 or post COVID-19 condition (long-COVID) makes you more vulnerable to monkeypox.

More studies are needed on patients who have or have had infection with the virus that causes COVID-19 or post-COVID-19 condition and now have monkeypox.

What is WHO’s response to stigmatising messaging circulating online related to monkeypox?

Answer

We have seen messages stigmatising certain groups of people around this outbreak of monkeypox. We want to make it very clear that this is not right.

First of all, anyone who has close physical contact of any kind with someone who has monkeypox is at risk, regardless of who they are, what they do, who they have sex with or any other factor.

Secondly, stigmatising people because of an illness or a disease is unacceptable. Stigma is only likely to make things worse and stop us from ending this outbreak as fast as we can.

We need to all pull together to support anyone who has been infected or who is helping to take care of people who are unwell.

We know how to stop this disease, and how we can all protect ourselves and others. Stigma and discrimination is never ok, and it is not ok in relation to this outbreak. We are all in this together

What is the monkeypox virus?

Answer

the monkeypox virus  is an orthopoxvirus 

 Conclusion

 

Tell us anything you know about the name of the monkeypox virus 

 

Remember your health is wealth

 

 

Please, let us know your thoughts in the comments section.

 

 

 

Continue Reading

Health

The Ultimate Guide to Choosing the Best Health Insurance for Pre-Existing Conditions

Published

on

the Best Health Insurance for Pre-Existing Conditions

The Ultimate Guide to Choosing the Best Health Insurance for Pre-Existing Conditions

Navigating the complex world of health insurance can be particularly challenging if you have pre-existing conditions. Finding the right coverage that offers comprehensive care without exorbitant premiums is essential.

In this article, we will explore various health insurance options, highlight key factors to consider, and provide actionable tips to help you make an informed decision.

Understanding Pre-Existing Conditions

What Are Pre-Existing Conditions?

Pre-existing conditions are health issues that exist before an individual’s health insurance coverage begins. These can range from chronic illnesses like diabetes and hypertension to conditions like asthma, cancer, and heart disease.

Why Are Pre-Existing Conditions Significant?

Insurance companies often view individuals with pre-existing conditions as higher risk, potentially leading to higher premiums, limited coverage, or even denial of coverage. Therefore, understanding how different insurance policies handle pre-existing conditions is crucial.

Types of Health Insurance Plans

1. Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance

Employer-sponsored health insurance is one of the most common types of coverage in the United States. These plans often provide comprehensive benefits and are subject to the Affordable Care Act (ACA) regulations, which prohibit denial of coverage based on pre-existing conditions.

2. Individual Health Insurance

Individual health insurance plans are purchased by individuals or families directly from insurance companies or through the ACA marketplace. These plans also follow ACA regulations, ensuring coverage for pre-existing conditions.

3. Medicare

Medicare is a federal health insurance program for people aged 65 and older and for some younger people with disabilities. Medicare has specific plans, such as Medicare Advantage and Medicare Supplement, which can provide additional coverage for pre-existing conditions.

4. Medicaid

Medicaid is a state and federal program that provides health coverage to low-income individuals. Eligibility and coverage for pre-existing conditions vary by state, but Medicaid generally offers comprehensive benefits.

5. Short-Term Health Insurance

Short-term health insurance plans are designed to provide temporary coverage during gaps in traditional insurance. These plans are typically less expensive but may not cover pre-existing conditions.

Key Factors to Consider

1. Coverage for Pre-Existing Conditions

Ensure that the health insurance plan you choose provides comprehensive coverage for your specific pre-existing conditions. Look for plans that cover regular treatments, medications, and specialist visits.

2. Premiums and Out-of-Pocket Costs

Compare the premiums and out-of-pocket costs, such as deductibles, copayments, and coinsurance. Higher premiums often mean lower out-of-pocket costs and vice versa. Find a balance that fits your budget and healthcare needs.

3. Network of Providers

Check if your preferred doctors, hospitals, and specialists are within the plan’s network. Having access to a broad network ensures you receive the necessary care without additional costs.

4. Prescription Drug Coverage

If you require ongoing medication, make sure the plan offers robust prescription drug coverage. Review the plan’s formulary to see if your medications are covered and at what cost.

5. Additional Benefits

Consider additional benefits such as mental health services, wellness programs, and preventive care. These can be particularly valuable for managing chronic conditions and maintaining overall health.

Best Health Insurance Options for Pre-Existing Conditions

1. Blue Cross Blue Shield

Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) offers a range of plans with extensive provider networks and comprehensive coverage. BCBS is known for its excellent customer service and tailored plans for individuals with pre-existing conditions.

2. Kaiser Permanente

Kaiser Permanente is a top choice for individuals with pre-existing conditions due to its integrated healthcare system. This means that you receive care from Kaiser’s network of doctors and hospitals, ensuring coordinated and efficient treatment.

3. UnitedHealthcare

UnitedHealthcare provides a variety of plans with strong coverage for pre-existing conditions. They offer numerous resources for managing chronic conditions, including wellness programs and 24/7 access to healthcare professionals.

4. Cigna

Cigna is renowned for its global presence and comprehensive coverage options. They offer extensive support for managing chronic conditions, including personalized care plans and access to a vast network of specialists.

5. Aetna

Aetna’s plans are designed to provide extensive coverage for individuals with pre-existing conditions. They offer a variety of wellness programs and resources to help manage and improve health outcomes.

Tips for Choosing the Right Health Insurance

1. Assess Your Healthcare Needs

Evaluate your healthcare needs based on your pre-existing conditions. Consider the types and frequency of treatments, medications, and specialist visits required.

2. Compare Multiple Plans

Don’t settle for the first plan you come across. Compare multiple plans based on coverage, costs, and provider networks. Use online tools and resources to make informed comparisons.

3. Understand the Policy Terms

Carefully read the policy terms, including coverage limitations, exclusions, and renewal conditions. Understanding these details can prevent unpleasant surprises down the line.

4. Seek Professional Advice

Consult with insurance brokers or healthcare advisors who specialize in health insurance. They can provide valuable insights and help you navigate the complexities of insurance options.

5. Review Annually

Health insurance needs can change over time. Review your plan annually to ensure it continues to meet your healthcare needs and adjust as necessary.

Conclusion

Choosing the best health insurance for pre-existing conditions requires careful consideration of various factors, including coverage options, costs, and provider networks.

By understanding your healthcare needs and comparing different plans, you can find a policy that offers the necessary coverage and peace of mind.

Remember, the right health insurance can significantly impact your overall well-being and financial stability.

FAQs

1. What is the best health insurance for pre-existing conditions?

The best health insurance for pre-existing conditions varies based on individual needs. However, companies like Blue Cross Blue Shield, Kaiser Permanente, UnitedHealthcare, Cigna, and Aetna are known for their comprehensive coverage and support for pre-existing conditions.

2. Are pre-existing conditions covered under all health insurance plans?

Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), all health insurance plans sold on the marketplace are required to cover pre-existing conditions. However, short-term health insurance plans may not provide such coverage.

3. Can I be denied health insurance because of a pre-existing condition?

No, under the ACA, health insurance companies cannot deny coverage or charge higher premiums based on pre-existing conditions for plans sold on the marketplace.

4. How can I reduce the cost of health insurance with pre-existing conditions?

To reduce costs, consider choosing plans with higher deductibles and lower premiums, exploring Medicaid eligibility, or using subsidies available through the ACA marketplace. Additionally, participating in wellness programs can sometimes lower overall costs.

5. What should I do if my medication isn’t covered by my health insurance plan?

If your medication isn’t covered, you can ask your doctor for alternative medications that are covered, appeal the insurance company’s decision, or seek assistance programs from pharmaceutical companies. You can also check if other health insurance plans offer better coverage for your medications.


References :

Continue Reading

Health

Understanding the Causes of Gum Cancer: A Comprehensive Guide

Published

on

the Causes of Gum Cancer

Understanding the Causes of Gum Cancer: A Comprehensive Guide

Gum cancer, a type of oral cancer, is a serious condition that affects the tissues of the gums. Early detection and understanding of the risk factors are crucial for prevention and treatment.

This article delves into the various causes of gum cancer, its symptoms, diagnosis, and prevention strategies.

What is Gum Cancer?

Gum cancer is a form of oral cancer that specifically affects the gums. It is typically characterized by malignant growths that can lead to severe complications if not treated promptly.

Gum cancer can develop on the upper or lower gums and is often first noticed as a persistent sore or lump.

Primary Causes of Gum Cancer

  1. Tobacco Use

    • Smoking: Cigarettes, cigars, and pipes are major contributors to gum cancer. The harmful chemicals in tobacco smoke can cause mutations in the cells of the gums.
    • Smokeless Tobacco: Chewing tobacco and snuff are also significant risk factors. These products contain carcinogenic substances that can cause cancer in the gums and other parts of the mouth.
  2. Alcohol Consumption

    Heavy alcohol use is linked to an increased risk of gum cancer. Alcohol can irritate the gum tissues and make them more susceptible to carcinogens.

  3. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

    HPV, particularly HPV-16, is associated with an increased risk of oral cancers, including gum cancer. The virus can cause changes in the cells of the gums, leading to cancer.

  4. Poor Oral Hygiene

    Neglecting oral care can lead to chronic infections and inflammation, increasing the risk of gum cancer. Regular brushing, flossing, and dental check-ups are essential for prevention.

  5. Dietary Factors

    A diet low in fruits and vegetables can increase the risk of gum cancer. Nutrients found in these foods help protect against cancer by strengthening the immune system.

  6. Genetic Predisposition

    Family history plays a role in the likelihood of developing gum cancer. Individuals with a family history of oral cancers should be particularly vigilant about their oral health.

  7. Sun Exposure

    Prolonged exposure to the sun can lead to lip and gum cancers. Using lip balm with SPF and avoiding excessive sun exposure can reduce this risk.

Symptoms of Gum Cancer

Early detection of gum cancer is crucial for successful treatment.

Symptoms to watch out for include:

  • Persistent sores or ulcers on the gums that do not heal
  • Lumps or thickening of the gum tissue
  • Red or white patches on the gums
  • Bleeding gums without an obvious cause
  • Loose teeth or changes in how dentures fit
  • Pain or tenderness in the gums

Diagnosis of Gum Cancer

If you experience any of the symptoms mentioned above, it is important to consult a dentist or healthcare provider.

The diagnosis of gum cancer typically involves:

  • Physical Examination: A thorough examination of the mouth, gums, and throat.
  • Biopsy: A sample of the affected tissue is taken and analyzed for cancer cells.
  • Imaging Tests: X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs may be used to determine the extent of the cancer.

Treatment Options

The treatment for gum cancer depends on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the overall health of the patient.

Common treatment options include:

  • Surgery: Removal of the cancerous tissue and, if necessary, nearby affected areas.
  • Radiation Therapy: Using high-energy rays to kill cancer cells.
  • Chemotherapy: Drugs are used to kill cancer cells or stop them from growing.
  • Targeted Therapy: Drugs that target specific cancer cell mechanisms.
  • Immunotherapy: Boosting the body’s immune system to fight cancer cells.

Prevention Strategies

Preventing gum cancer involves reducing risk factors and maintaining good oral health.

Key strategies include:

  • Avoid Tobacco: Refrain from smoking or using smokeless tobacco products.
  • Limit Alcohol: Consume alcohol in moderation.
  • Practice Good Oral Hygiene: Brush and floss regularly, and visit the dentist for routine check-ups.
  • Healthy Diet: Eat a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables.
  • Protect Against HPV: Consider HPV vaccination and practice safe oral hygiene.
  • Sun Protection: Use lip balm with SPF and avoid excessive sun exposure.

Conclusion

Understanding the causes of gum cancer is the first step in prevention and early detection. By recognizing the risk factors and symptoms, individuals can take proactive measures to protect their oral health. Regular dental check-ups and a healthy lifestyle are essential in reducing the risk of gum cancer.

FAQs About Gum Cancer

1. What are the early signs of gum cancer?

Early signs include persistent sores, lumps, red or white patches, bleeding gums, and loose teeth.

2. How is gum cancer diagnosed?

Diagnosis involves a physical examination, biopsy, and imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs.

3. Can gum cancer be cured?

Early-stage gum cancer can often be treated successfully with surgery, radiation therapy, and other treatments.

4. Who is at risk for gum cancer?

Risk factors include tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, HPV infection, poor oral hygiene, and a family history of oral cancers.

5. How can I prevent gum cancer?

Prevention strategies include avoiding tobacco, limiting alcohol, practicing good oral hygiene, eating a healthy diet, protecting against HPV, and using sun protection.


References

Continue Reading

Health

Understanding the Symptoms of Diabetes in Pregnancy: A Comprehensive Guide

Published

on

the Symptoms of Diabetes in Pregnancy

Diabetes during pregnancy, also known as gestational diabetes, is a common condition that can pose serious health risks to both the mother and the baby. Identifying the symptoms early and managing them effectively is crucial for a healthy pregnancy.

This article provides an in-depth look at the symptoms of diabetes in pregnancy, how to manage them, and what expectant mothers need to know to ensure a safe and healthy journey.

What is Gestational Diabetes?

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy. It affects how your cells use sugar (glucose) and can cause high blood sugar levels, which can impact your pregnancy and your baby’s health.

Symptoms of Diabetes in Pregnancy

1. Increased Thirst

One of the earliest symptoms of gestational diabetes is an increased feeling of thirst. This is because your body is trying to flush out the excess glucose through urine.

2. Frequent Urination

Frequent urination is another common symptom. As your body attempts to eliminate excess glucose, you may find yourself needing to urinate more often.

3. Fatigue

Pregnancy naturally causes fatigue, but excessive tiredness can also be a sign of gestational diabetes. High blood sugar levels can affect your energy levels, leaving you feeling more tired than usual.

4. Nausea

While nausea is common in pregnancy, it can be more pronounced in women with gestational diabetes. High blood sugar levels can exacerbate feelings of nausea.

5. Blurred Vision

High blood sugar levels can affect your vision, causing it to become blurry. This occurs due to fluid being pulled from the lenses of your eyes.

6. Recurrent Infections

Frequent infections, particularly urinary tract infections (UTIs) and yeast infections can be a symptom of gestational diabetes. High sugar levels create an environment where bacteria and yeast can thrive.

7. Unexplained Weight Loss

Although weight gain is expected during pregnancy, some women with gestational diabetes may experience unexplained weight loss. This happens because the body is not effectively using glucose for energy.

Risk Factors for Gestational Diabetes

Understanding the risk factors can help in early identification and management. Here are some common risk factors:

1. Overweight or Obesity

Being overweight before pregnancy increases your risk of developing gestational diabetes.

2. Family History

A family history of diabetes can increase your risk.

3. Age

Women over the age of 25 are more likely to develop gestational diabetes.

4. Previous Gestational Diabetes

If you’ve had gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy, you are at a higher risk of developing it again.

5. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

PCOS is another risk factor that can increase the likelihood of developing gestational diabetes.

Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is typically diagnosed through screening tests performed during pregnancy. These include:

1. Glucose Challenge Test

This initial test involves drinking a sugary solution and having your blood sugar levels tested after an hour.

2. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

If the glucose challenge test results are higher than normal, an oral glucose tolerance test will be conducted. This test involves fasting overnight, drinking a sugary solution, and having your blood sugar levels tested at regular intervals.

Managing Gestational Diabetes

Effective management of gestational diabetes is crucial for a healthy pregnancy and delivery. Here are some strategies:

1. Healthy Diet

A balanced diet rich in nutrients and low in simple sugars is essential. Focus on whole grains, lean proteins, fruits, and vegetables.

2. Regular Exercise

Regular physical activity helps regulate blood sugar levels and can improve your overall health during pregnancy.

3. Monitoring Blood Sugar Levels

Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels is important to ensure they remain within a healthy range.

4. Medication

In some cases, lifestyle changes alone may not be enough. Your doctor may prescribe insulin or other medications to help manage your blood sugar levels.

5. Regular Check-Ups

Frequent visits to your healthcare provider are important to monitor your condition and make any necessary adjustments to your treatment plan.

Potential Complications

If gestational diabetes is not properly managed, it can lead to complications such as:

1. High Birth Weight

Babies born to mothers with gestational diabetes are often larger than average, which can cause complications during delivery.

2. Preterm Birth

Gestational diabetes increases the risk of preterm birth and associated complications.

3. Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Babies born to mothers with gestational diabetes may have difficulty breathing at birth.

4. Low Blood Sugar (Hypoglycemia)

Newborns may have low blood sugar levels at birth, requiring immediate medical attention.

5. Type 2 Diabetes

Women who have had gestational diabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.

Preventing Gestational Diabetes

While not all cases of gestational diabetes can be prevented, certain lifestyle changes can reduce your risk:

1. Maintain a Healthy Weight

Achieving and maintaining a healthy weight before and during pregnancy can reduce your risk.

2. Eat a Balanced Diet

Focus on a diet rich in fiber, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats.

3. Exercise Regularly

Engage in regular physical activity to help regulate blood sugar levels.

4. Regular Health Check-Ups

Frequent visits to your healthcare provider can help monitor your health and catch any issues early.

Conclusion

Gestational diabetes is a common but manageable condition. By understanding the symptoms, risk factors, and management strategies, expectant mothers can take proactive steps to ensure a healthy pregnancy and a safe delivery.

Regular monitoring, a healthy lifestyle, and following your healthcare provider’s advice are key to managing gestational diabetes effectively.

FAQs

1. What are the common symptoms of gestational diabetes?

Common symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, nausea, blurred vision, recurrent infections, and unexplained weight loss.

2. How is gestational diabetes diagnosed?

Gestational diabetes is diagnosed through glucose screening tests, including the glucose challenge test and the oral glucose tolerance test.

3. Can gestational diabetes affect my baby?

Yes, if not properly managed, gestational diabetes can lead to complications such as high birth weight, preterm birth, respiratory distress syndrome, and low blood sugar levels in the newborn.

4. What lifestyle changes can help manage gestational diabetes?

A healthy diet, regular exercise, monitoring blood sugar levels, and regular check-ups with your healthcare provider are essential for managing gestational diabetes.

5. Is it possible to prevent gestational diabetes?

While not all cases can be prevented, maintaining a healthy weight, eating a balanced diet, exercising regularly, and having regular health check-ups can reduce your risk.


References

Continue Reading
Advertisement
Advertisement

Trending