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How Does Cholera Cause Dehydration?



Last Updated on June 10, 2022 by Nurse Vicky

How Does Cholera Cause Dehydration?


Cholera is an acute watery diarrhoea caused by cholera.

While most cholera patients experience mild symptoms, some can develop acute dehydration and even death, if left untreated.

Historically, cholera spread widely in the nineteenth century, from its original reservoir in the Ganges delta in India.

Six subsequent pandemics swept through different continents, killing millions.

The current outbreak began in South Asia in 1961, spreading to Africa and the Americas.

It is endemic in many countries, including India.

Symptoms of cholera

Symptoms of cholera can include extreme dehydration, severe diarrhea, and fever.

The infection occurs after you ingest contaminated food or water, and you increase your risk of cholera by living in an area affected by the disease.

Treatment focuses on replacing the fluid lost through diarrhea.

This dehydration can be extremely rapid and extreme, and medical treatment may include giving the patient fluids via a vein or intravenous drip.

If you don’t have access to medical care, you can also self-treat with an antibiotic for travelers’ diarrhea.

Symptoms of cholera cause dehydrated people to become extremely thirsty, feel weak and have sunken eyes.

The loss of fluid can result in rapid dehydration, which can lead to kidney failure, seizures, and even death if not treated quickly.

Cholera is caused by the Vibrio cholerae bacteria.

To prevent cholera, stay as hydrated as possible.

People with certain health conditions, such as HIV or AIDS, are at an increased risk of contracting cholera.

People with low stomach acid or those on proton pump inhibitors are more susceptible.
People who have a blood type O gene are also at a higher risk.

People with type O blood have a decreased ability to fight off cholera bacteria. This condition can be life-threatening.

Bacteria that cause cholera produce enterotoxin, a toxin that triggers massive secretion of salts and water.

This fluid can be more than the intestine can absorb, resulting in extreme dehydration.

This can cause dehydration and shock.

The diarrhea, in turn, can cause dehydration and lead to death.

In addition, antibiotics may help treat the severe form of cholera.

If you or someone you know has cholera, make sure you wash your hands thoroughly.

Do not eat food from a street vendor, as these are likely to contain bacteria that are infected with the disease.

Wash your hands thoroughly after defecation, and remember to wash your hands often.

You should also avoid street drinking water, which has been repeatedly implicated as a source of infection.

Although most people with cholera have mild symptoms, one in 10 will develop a more serious case.

When left untreated, cholera can lead to dehydration and death.

During the 19th century, cholera spread across the world.

Its original reservoir was the Ganges delta in India.

Since then, six pandemics followed, killing millions of people in various countries.

In the most recent outbreak, which occurred in the United Republic of Tanzania, Iraq, and Cuba, cholera is endemic in many areas.

Cholera is a waterborne disease caused by V. cholerae.

It spreads through the population when feces contaminate water and food.

People with cholera can get sick from eating shellfish from the Gulf of Mexico or eating raw oysters. Fortunately, it is rare in the United States.

It usually only affects travelers but has occasionally been found in developed countries, including the United States.

Most cases trace back to contaminated seafood or contaminated waters.

Mechanisms behind cholera’s spread

In communities with high contact rates and high rates of infection, cholera outbreaks can occur during a seasonal cycle.

The dynamics of cholera’s spread in water follows a similar pattern to human excretion.

It can spread in a community without triggering an epidemic by spreading through the water.

However, the outbreak of cholera can be triggered by the introduction of effective species.

In developing countries, cholera outbreaks are often preceded by disasters brought on by El Nino, which caused severe flooding in many places.

In Bangladesh, cholera season coincides with the post-monsoon period.

Flooding washes away contaminated feces, but drought may exacerbate hygiene conditions.

It also limits the availability of potable water and increases the number of people sharing a single supply.

It is thought that people with severe cases of cholera act as highly effective transmitters.

However, persons with no or mild symptoms of cholera also play a key role in spreading the disease .

As barriers to personal and commercial travel disappear, these people become an important part of the transmission of cholera.

This epidemic has been reported in over 50 countries and is still ongoing. So, how can we prevent cholera from spreading?

The first outbreak of cholera was associated with contaminated water supplies. In the 1850s, WHO researchers first linked cholera outbreaks with contaminated water.

Since then, outbreaks of the disease are largely associated with contaminated water and food.

Therefore, proper sanitation and safe water are vital to the prevention of the disease.

This disease is accompanied by a high mortality rate and is highly contagious.

In order to cause an outbreak of cholera, a person must inhale about 100 million bacteria.

In addition to the bacterial infection, the person’s blood type also affects their susceptibility to the disease.

Type O blood is the most vulnerable, and those with lower immunity are more likely to get severe cholera.

The bacteria can also live in grains and unpeeled vegetables. These factors make these produce items a major source of infection in cholera-infested regions.

Although most people exposed to cholera are not ill, the bacterium is shed in their stool for seven to fourteen days

. These bacteria are then spread to other people through contaminated water.

Infected individuals generally suffer mild diarrhea, which is difficult to differentiate from diarrhea caused by other illnesses.

In the following days, severe cholera cases develop.

They may become acute within a few days. The symptoms of cholera can be life-threatening.

The aetiological agent of cholera is the bacterium Vibrio cholera.

Although this organism is generally a water-borne pathogen, it is increasingly recognized as a food-borne disease, especially in developing countries where sanitation is inadequate.

This bacteria causes diarrhea by colonizing foods and water that contain water that is contaminated with the organism.

Further, because of its association with marine life, it can survive in food and water for long periods.

The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 54 people die every year from cholera.

Cholera Strikes Dessalines, Haiti | Francina Devariste, 3 ye… | Flickr

Treatment for cholera

If a patient is suffering from severe dehydration caused by cholera, medical treatment is essential.

The symptoms of cholera dehydration can be incredibly unpleasant and may range from sunken eyes and dry mouth to leg cramps and a reduced skin turgor.

A person may also appear apathetic and have deep, erratic breathing.

This condition is known as cholera since.

The first step in cholera treatment is rehydration. Rehydration can be achieved in two phases: a rehydration phase and a maintenance phase.

Treatment for dehydration caused by cholera should begin as early as possible after the diagnosis.

Treatment for dehydration caused by cholera must be started right away to ensure the patient’s health and the safety of her or his family.

The treatment of cholera requires quick early intervention, strict attention to details, and infection control procedures.

While this treatment is not cheap, the methods and protocols used by organizations such as cider, b, and MSF are extremely efficient and can be implemented successfully in resource-poor settings.

The World Health Organization and UNICEF offer extensive information about cholera management and a wealth of training materials that can be downloaded for free.

Cholera is an epidemic infectious disease caused by Vibrio cholerae bacteria. Infection with cholera can cause severe dehydration and, if untreated, can be fatal.

Most countries have water treatment facilities to prevent cholera from spreading in their areas.

However, outbreaks of cholera in the U.S. have been caused by contaminated seafood, although they are rare.

However, cholera remains a serious health concern, and the World Health Organization reports about 1.3 million to 4 million cases each year.

A vaccine for cholera is available for adults and children. However, only a small number of Americans actually need a cholera vaccin

e. The vaccine is only effective for a short time and most Americans do not travel to countries that regularly suffer from active cholera outbreaks.

The best prevention method is to avoid eating uncooked vegetables, avoiding iced drinks, and other street foods that could contain cholera.

Early cholera treatment protocols included the use of oral chloroform and alcohol. Some physicians opted for phlebotomy, which had some success, but was not effective for all patients.

These early treatments are now known as ‘rehydration’.

But what about the treatment of cholera?

There is a vast difference between the successful treatments and the ones that fail.

Regardless of whether a treatment is effective, the goal of preventing or treating cholera is to treat underlying causes of dehydration.





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How to Maintain Healthy Eating Habits at Social Events



Sister Regina Liu

How to Maintain Healthy Eating Habits at Social Events

Social events often pose a challenge to maintaining healthy eating habits. With an abundance of delicious yet unhealthy food options, it’s easy to stray from your nutritional goals.

However, by planning and making mindful choices, you can enjoy social gatherings without compromising your health. Here are some practical tips to help you maintain healthy eating habits at social events.

Plan Ahead

Eat Before You Go

Before attending a social event, eat a small, healthy meal. This can help curb your appetite and prevent overeating. Choose foods high in protein and fiber, such as a chicken salad or a bowl of oatmeal with fruits.

Research the Menu

If the event is at a restaurant or has a set menu, research the options beforehand. Look for healthy choices and decide what you will order in advance. This can help you avoid impulsive decisions when you’re hungry and tempted by less healthy options.

Make Smart Choices

Opt for Smaller Portions

It’s easy to overindulge at social events, especially when the food is served buffet-style. Opt for smaller portions to enjoy a variety of foods without overeating. Use a smaller plate if possible, and fill it with vegetables and lean proteins first.

Choose Healthy Alternatives

Look for healthier alternatives to traditional party foods. For example, choose grilled chicken over fried chicken, or a vegetable platter over chips and dip. If you’re hosting the event, consider providing healthy options for your guests.

Stay Hydrated

Drink Water

Staying hydrated is essential for maintaining healthy eating habits. Drink plenty of water throughout the event to help you feel full and avoid mistaking thirst for hunger. If you’re drinking alcohol, alternate with water to stay hydrated and reduce your alcohol intake.

Avoid Sugary Drinks

Sugary drinks, such as soda and fruit punch, can add a significant amount of empty calories to your diet. Opt for water, sparkling water, or unsweetened tea instead.

Be Mindful of Alcohol

Limit Your Intake

Alcohol can lower your inhibitions and lead to overeating. Limit your alcohol intake to avoid this. If you do choose to drink, opt for lower-calorie options such as a wine spritzer or a light beer.

Eat Before Drinking

Eating a healthy meal before drinking can help slow the absorption of alcohol and prevent you from getting too intoxicated, which can lead to poor food choices.

Practice Mindful Eating

Pay Attention to Your Hunger Cues

Listen to your body and eat when you’re hungry, not just because food is available. Take small bites, chew thoroughly, and savor the flavors. This can help you enjoy your food more and eat less.

Avoid Mindless Eating

Social events often involve a lot of mingling and distractions, which can lead to mindless eating. Be aware of what and how much you’re eating, and avoid standing near the food table to reduce temptation.

Bring Your Healthy Dish

Contribute a Healthy Option

If you’re attending a potluck or a family gathering, bring a healthy dish to share. This ensures that there will be at least one nutritious option available, and it can inspire others to make healthier choices as well.

Offer to Help with Meal Prep

If you’re close to the host, offer to help with meal preparation. This can give you some control over the menu and an opportunity to suggest or prepare healthier options.

Set Realistic Goals

Allow Yourself to Indulge in Moderation

It’s okay to indulge in your favorite treats occasionally. Allow yourself to enjoy small portions of your favorite foods without guilt. This can prevent feelings of deprivation and make it easier to stick to your healthy eating habits in the long run.

Focus on Socializing

Remember that social events are about spending time with friends and family. Focus on socializing and enjoying the company, rather than making food the main attraction.

Stay Active

Incorporate Physical Activity

If possible, incorporate physical activity into the event. This could be as simple as a walk after the meal or playing a game of catch. Physical activity can help offset some of the extra calories consumed and keep you energized.

Dance the Night Away

If there’s music and dancing, take advantage of it! Dancing is a fun way to burn calories and stay active while enjoying the event.

Maintain a Positive Mindset

Don’t Stress Over Perfection

It’s important to remember that one meal or one event won’t make or break your healthy eating habits. Don’t stress over perfection. Instead, focus on making the best choices you can and getting back on track with your regular eating habits after the event.

Celebrate Your Successes

Celebrate the small victories, such as choosing a healthy option or stopping when you’re full. Acknowledging your successes can boost your confidence and help you stay motivated.

that you can enjoy guilt-free.


Maintaining healthy eating habits at social events requires planning, mindful choices, and a focus on socializing rather than just food. By implementing these strategies, you can enjoy social gatherings without compromising your health. Remember, it’s all about balance and making the best choices for your well-being.


1. How can I resist the temptation of unhealthy foods at social events?

To resist temptation, eat a healthy meal before attending the event, stay hydrated, and focus on socializing rather than food. Bringing your healthy dish can also help.

2. What are some healthy snack options to bring to a potluck?

Healthy snack options include vegetable platters with hummus, fruit salads, whole-grain crackers with cheese, and Greek yogurt with mixed berries.

3. How do I handle peer pressure to eat unhealthy foods?

Politely decline or take a small portion to satisfy your peers without compromising your dietary goals. You can also explain your commitment to healthy eating if comfortable.

4. Is it okay to indulge occasionally at social events?

Yes, occasional indulgence is fine. The key is moderation. Enjoy small portions of your favorite treats without overindulging.

5. What should I do if I overeat at a social event?

Don’t stress about it. Return to your healthy eating habits at your next meal and consider increasing your physical activity to balance out the extra calories.

References :

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“NHS Doctors Dismissed Our Symptoms as Menopause – What We Experience is Much More Severe”



"NHS Doctors Dismissed Our Symptoms as Menopause

“NHS Doctors Dismissed Our Symptoms as Menopause – What We Experience is Much More Severe”

In recent years, a growing number of individuals have faced challenges in receiving appropriate medical attention for their health conditions.

Many have reported that their symptoms, often dismissed as merely menopausal, are part of a broader and more serious health crisis.

This article delves into the experiences of those affected, exploring the ramifications of misdiagnosis and the urgent need for greater awareness and understanding within the healthcare system.

Understanding the Symptoms

Individuals experiencing symptoms often associated with menopause, such as hot flashes, mood swings, and fatigue, may be facing more complex health issues.

These symptoms can stem from various underlying conditions, which may require different treatment approaches. Misidentification of these symptoms can lead to inadequate care and a worsening of the individual’s health.

The Impact of Misdiagnosis

Misdiagnosis can have serious consequences. When healthcare professionals dismiss legitimate concerns, patients may feel invalidated and lose trust in the healthcare system.

This can result in delays in receiving necessary treatments, worsening symptoms, and deteriorating mental health.

Case Studies: Real Voices, Real Experiences

  1. Sarah’s Story Sarah, a 45-year-old woman, began experiencing severe fatigue and joint pain. Initially brushed off as menopausal symptoms, she later discovered she had an autoimmune disorder that required immediate treatment. Sarah’s experience highlights the importance of comprehensive examinations and not hastily attributing symptoms to menopause.
  2. Tom’s Journey Tom, a 50-year-old man, experienced mood swings and significant weight changes. His doctor attributed these changes to mid-life hormonal shifts. After seeking a second opinion, Tom was diagnosed with thyroid dysfunction, a condition that was treatable but had been overlooked.

The Need for Awareness and Education

Increasing awareness among both patients and healthcare providers about the potential seriousness of overlooked symptoms is crucial. Educational initiatives and training for healthcare professionals can lead to better diagnostic practices and improved patient outcomes.

Symptoms That Should Not Be Ignored

Certain symptoms should prompt further investigation rather than immediate dismissal. These include:

  • Severe fatigue
  • Unexplained weight loss or gain
  • Persistent joint or muscle pain
  • Significant mood changes
  • Memory loss or cognitive difficulties

Recognizing these symptoms can lead to earlier diagnoses and interventions, potentially preventing further health complications.

Advocating for Change in the Healthcare System

Advocacy is key in addressing the challenges faced by those experiencing misdiagnosed health conditions. Patient advocacy groups play an essential role in raising awareness, providing resources, and pushing for changes within healthcare systems.

Empowering Patients

Empowering patients to take charge of their health can foster better communication with healthcare providers.

Here are some tips for individuals navigating their health concerns:

  • Educate Yourself: Understand your symptoms and research potential conditions that could be affecting you.
  • Seek Second Opinions: Don’t hesitate to consult another doctor if you feel your concerns aren’t being taken seriously.
  • Document Your Symptoms: Keeping a journal of your symptoms can provide valuable information to your healthcare provider.


The issue of misdiagnosis related to menopause and other serious health conditions is critical and demands immediate attention.

By fostering greater awareness and encouraging open dialogue between patients and healthcare providers, we can work towards a healthcare system that better serves everyone.

Understanding that symptoms may signify more severe health issues is the first step toward effective treatment and improved quality of life.


1. What should I do if my symptoms are dismissed by my doctor?

If your symptoms are not being taken seriously, consider seeking a second opinion and documenting your symptoms to present a comprehensive case.

2. How can I educate myself about potential health issues?

Research reputable medical sources, talk to healthcare professionals, and consider joining support groups for shared experiences and knowledge.

3. Are there specific tests that can help diagnose underlying conditions?

Yes, depending on your symptoms, doctors may recommend blood tests, imaging studies, or referrals to specialists.

4. What resources are available for patient advocacy?

Many organizations focus on patient advocacy; researching local and national groups can provide valuable support and resources.

5. How can I improve communication with my healthcare provider?

Prepare for appointments by noting your symptoms, asking clear questions, and expressing your concerns confidently.


For more detailed information, visit the original article here.

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Measles Outbreak at NYC Migrant Shelter Highlights Public Health Concerns Amid Border Crisis



Measles Outbreak at NYC Migrant Shelter

Measles Outbreak at NYC Migrant Shelter Highlights Public Health Concerns Amid Border Crisis

The recent detection of measles at a migrant shelter in New York City has intensified the debate surrounding the ongoing border crisis and its public health implications. This development has raised alarms among health officials and the public, highlighting the need for comprehensive strategies to manage the influx of migrants while safeguarding public health.

Understanding the Measles Outbreak

Measles, a highly contagious viral disease, poses a significant health risk, especially in densely populated areas. The outbreak at the NYC migrant shelter has put a spotlight on the challenges faced by public health officials in managing and containing such diseases within vulnerable populations.

The Impact of Measles

  • Highly Contagious: Measles spreads through respiratory droplets, making it easy to transmit in crowded conditions.
  • Severe Complications: The disease can lead to severe complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis, and even death, particularly in children and immunocompromised individuals.
  • Vaccination: Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, measles outbreaks still occur, often linked to unvaccinated populations.

The Border Crisis and Public Health

The ongoing border crisis has resulted in an unprecedented number of migrants entering the United States. Many of these individuals come from regions with lower vaccination rates and inadequate healthcare infrastructure, increasing the risk of disease outbreaks.

Challenges in Migrant Shelters

  • Overcrowding: Migrant shelters often operate at or beyond capacity, creating conditions conducive to the rapid spread of infectious diseases.
  • Limited Resources: Shelters frequently struggle with limited resources, including medical supplies and personnel, which hampers effective disease management and prevention.
  • Healthcare Access: Migrants may have limited access to healthcare services, including vaccinations, both in their home countries and upon arrival in the U.S.

Federal Response and Policy Implications

The Biden administration has faced criticism over its handling of the border crisis and its impact on public health. Critics argue that the administration’s policies have contributed to the current situation, while supporters contend that the challenges are multifaceted and require a comprehensive approach.

Policy Measures

  • Enhanced Screening: Implementing robust health screening protocols for migrants upon entry to identify and manage infectious diseases early.
  • Vaccination Programs: Expanding vaccination programs within migrant shelters to prevent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases.
  • Resource Allocation: Ensuring adequate resources, including medical staff and supplies, are available at migrant shelters to address health concerns promptly.

Public Health Strategies

Addressing the public health challenges posed by the border crisis requires coordinated efforts from federal, state, and local agencies, as well as collaboration with non-governmental organizations (NGOs).

Preventive Measures

  • Vaccination Campaigns: Launching targeted vaccination campaigns in high-risk areas and among migrant populations to reduce the risk of outbreaks.
  • Public Awareness: Increasing public awareness about the importance of vaccination and the risks associated with measles and other infectious diseases.
  • Community Health Programs: Developing community health programs that provide education, resources, and support to both migrants and local communities.


The measles outbreak at the NYC migrant shelter underscores the complex interplay between public health and immigration policy.

As the border crisis continues to evolve, it is crucial to adopt comprehensive strategies that address both the immediate health needs of migrants and the broader public health concerns.

Enhanced screening, vaccination programs, and resource allocation are essential components of a robust public health response. By prioritizing these measures, we can mitigate the risks posed by infectious diseases and protect the health and well-being of all individuals.


1. What caused the measles outbreak at the NYC migrant shelter?

The outbreak is likely due to the combination of overcrowded conditions, limited healthcare access, and the presence of unvaccinated individuals within the shelter.

2. How can measles be prevented in migrant shelters?

Prevention can be achieved through robust vaccination programs, enhanced health screenings, and improving living conditions to reduce overcrowding.

3. What are the complications of measles?

Measles can lead to severe complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis, and even death, particularly in children and immunocompromised individuals.

4. How is the Biden administration addressing the public health concerns related to the border crisis?

The administration is implementing enhanced screening protocols, expanding vaccination programs, and allocating resources to address health concerns in migrant shelters.

5. Why is vaccination important in preventing measles outbreaks?

Vaccination is crucial because it provides immunity against measles, reducing the risk of outbreaks and protecting vulnerable populations from severe complications.


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